Muscles of a person: anatomy, functions, building in pictures

Muscular system is an important part of the musculoskeletal system. It helps maintain position in space, perform various movements. Muscles of a person make up to 47% of body weight. The physical activity allows them to strengthen them, increase the mass. Knowledge of their structure and functions are especially important for athletes. It helps improve the results and reduce the negative impact of increased loads.

Hello friends! Muscles of man and everything about their classification, features, anatomy and structure I believe that you need to know to build a beautiful body faster and more efficient, so today I consider it very important to talk about it.

Muscle structure and principles of their work

Each muscle is not a separate organ, but part of the unified system. It consists of a variety of interconnected cells - myocytes, they are covered with loose and dense connective tissue - fascia.

In the structure of each muscle, two zones are distinguished:

  1. Abdomen.
  2. Tendon.

The main work is performed by the first part. The abdomen consists of myocytes that are able to shrink. Therefore, the function of this zone is active, contractile.

Tender performs passive work - it is a dense connective tissue, with which the muscle is attached to the bones or joints.

The musculoskeletal system of the person works in close relationship. The bones are not only the place of attachment of the muscles, but the source of calcium to reduce them.

In turn, the muscles improve the nutrition of the bones during operation, accelerating blood circulation and metabolic processes in the field of periosteum.

The mechanism of operation of muscle fibers was opened in the middle of the XX century. He was called the theory of sliding threads.

Reduction and relaxation is regulated by nerve pulses using calcium and magnesium ions.

Magnesium is like a brake fluid that allows muscle fibers alone without waste energy.

During the passage of the nervous pulse, calcium ions are released, which stimulate the reduction of fibers.

Power is carried out through thin capillaries that pass between the fibers. There are also nervous bundles through which the signal is served. The source of energy is glucose or fatty acids.

The presence of oxygen ions is also necessarily. Moreover, these substances must permanently enter the body from the outside. Muscles are not able to accumulate a lot of ATP. With a lack of energy, their exhaustion, fatigue begins, is accumulated by lactic acid.

Muscle structure of man

Muscular fiber is a single cell consisting of threads of different thickness.

It is multi-core, but the fibers interact only on a certain area. It is called a sarcomer and is usually 30% of the muscle length. It is on this plot that it is reduced or stretched. Elasticity is provided by proteins by collagen and elastin.

Be sure to read my more detailed article about Collagen for joints . I am sure you will like it.

The shell of muscle fibers is covered with myofibrils. The speed of muscle contraction and their strength depends on their quantity. Training leads to an increase in the thickness and quantity of myofibrils. With the growth of them 2 times the power of the muscle increases 3 times.

Myocytes themselves consist for the most part of the water, its composition of muscular cells 70-80%. There are also proteins, glycogen, mineral salts. And the shell on which the operation of the fibers depends has a more complex structure. It is distinguished by several substances:

  • Aktin - a amino acid, which makes up thin threads, is responsible for the reduction;
  • myosin is thick threads, is a polypeptide chains of 2 thousand amino acids;
  • Aktinomyosin is a protein complex formed when they interact.

Thanks to this complex structure, each muscular fiber can withstand serious loads. The strength of the muscles depends on the amount of myocytes, as well as from trace elements included in their composition.

If their cells do not receive proteins, glucose, fatty acids and oxygen, reduction ability will decrease, they will decrease in size.

Types of man muscles

Depending on the structure, functions and location, all muscle tissue in the human body is divided into three groups.

  • Smooth muscles make up the walls of internal organs and blood vessels. They operate automatically, continuously, regardless of consciousness. With their help moves the food lump on the digestive system, the bladder is running, or blood pressure is raised or lowered.
  • Cardiac muscles are located only in the heart, serve to pump blood. They also work continuously and rhythmically.
  • Skeletal muscles or across the body make up the body frame. It is these muscles that are interested in us, because It is them that we are trying to pump up. They respond not only for various movements, but also for maintaining equilibrium, a certain position. Even alone when a person sits or lies, many of them work. Through the will, a person can make them shrink or relax. These fibers are actively reacting to nervous impulses, with the help of loads, you can increase their strength and volume. But continuous work leads to their fatigue.

Physical training are aimed at strengthening skeletal muscles. But in the body everything is interconnected.

A strong muscle corset supports the proper operation of the internal organs, which leads to an improvement in digestion. Due to this, muscle fibers get more nutrients and can withstand even heavy loads.

Skeletal muscles are also associated with the work of the heart. During training, the heart muscle is strengthened. This leads to an improvement in blood circulation and the provision of myocytes with oxygen.

Properties of skeletal muscles

Cross-resistant or skeletal muscles of a person have the most complex structure. It is they who constitute a part of the musculoskeletal system that physical workouts are directed to them. These muscles perform many important features:

  • Support pose;
  • participate in movement;
  • in moving parts of the body;
  • Protect internal organs;
  • Adjust breathing, blood circulation, body temperature.

They are able to carry out nervous impulses and decline under their influence. It is also important to the ability of these fibers to relax and preserve the condition of rest. They are characterized by such properties:

  • Tensile - an increase in length under force, most fibers are able to stretch by 150%;
  • Elasticity - restoration of the original form after the termination of force;
  • The reduction is the ability to compress, usually by 30-50% of length;
  • Strength - Holding a Defined Cargo

Skeletal muscles can function in a dynamic mode when their active abbreviation and stretching occurs, as well as in isometric mode. This is a static voltage that does not lead to a change in the length of the fibers.

So the muscles support the vertical position of the body and working for overcoming gravity.

The feature of skeletal muscles also depends on the type and structure of the fibers.

  • Red or slow fibers contain many mitochondria. They are deeply located, mostly these discrepancing muscles and extensors. Excited slowly, require external stimulation. The speed of the nervous impulse is up to 8 m / s. Oxygen is actively used, oxidizing carbohydrates and fats, participate in heat exchange.
  • Fast or white muscular fibers are superficial. These are flexors and leading. Can work with oxygen deficiency. Reducing quickly, pulse speed up to 40 m / s. But what kind of fibers are involved in motion, it depends not from speed, but from the applied effort.

It is believed that the ratio of different muscle fibers is determined genetically. This can explain the natural tendency of people to certain sports. But with the correct distribution of the load, you can force the muscles to adapt and perform any work.

Human body muscle classification

All skeletal muscles are classified in anatomy in the form, position in the body, functions, the direction of fibers and the type of interaction with each other. The form differences short, long, wide. By location - external or superficial, deep, internal, as well as lateral and medial. Such species differ in the direction of fibers:

  • parallel;
  • oblique;
  • transverse;
  • circular;
  • one, dull and multi-solid;
  • semi-dry;
  • Semi-proof.

In this classification, straight, beltid, spindle-shaped. These are simple muscles.

There are also two-headed, three-headed and 4th main muscles. They relate to complex. This group includes comb, gear, square, deltoid, trapezoids.

But the most famous separation of all muscles by their functions is known. Groups are determined depending on the type of movement performed:

  • flexors and extensors;
  • discharge and leading;
  • tilting to the right and left;
  • Pronators and supinators;
  • Rising - omitting.

There are also several species depending on how they interact with each other.

  • So the muscle that takes on the main burden is called an agonist.
  • All that help her make this action working together is synergists.
  • Those that counteract the movement working in another direction are antagonists.
  • There are still stabilizers or clamps. They are needed to hold the joints in the correct position during the load.

How many muscles in the human body

The muscles of the person form a complex system. They differ from each other with dimensions, features, location. It is believed that in the body of 640 muscles. These include smooth, skeletal and heartfelt. But according to some counts, they can be up to 850.

Music names

In the title of the muscles, their appearance is reflected - the widest, straight, or location is breast-curable-bedlike.

Many of them are called what functions are performed - a finger extensor.

Some names have been preserved from the Middle Ages, for example, the tailoring muscle is the one that participates in the bending of the hip, it was in this position that the tailors were sitting behind the machine.

Often the location is also reflected in the title.

The localization distinguish between several groups: muscles of the head, neck, torso, upper limbs, lower extremities. Not all of them are involved in physical exertion.

But you need to know the scheme of the location of the most famous muscles, which are most often involved in training.

Let us clearly look at the main muscles of our body, which we are more than others strive to transform with training and nutrition:

  1. Trapezius (Trapezius).
  2. Deltoidoid (Deltoid).
  3. Biceps (Biceps).
  4. Rhomboid.
  5. Big Round (Teres Major).
  6. Triceps (triceps).
  7. Beam wrist extension (Extensor Carpi Radialis).
  8. Misina Extensor (Extensor Digiti Minimi).
  10. Latisimus Dorsi (Latisimus Dorsi).
  12. Front gear muscle (Serratus Anterior).
  13. Direct abdominis muscle (Rectus abdominis).
  14. Outdoor abdominal muscle (External Oblique).
  15. Lumbarnic Fascia (Thoraco-Lumbar Fascia).
  16. Big Muscle Muscle (gluteus maximus).
  17. Long muscle leading (Adductor Longus).
  18. Thin Muscle Hip (Gracilis).
  19. Lateral wide thigh muscle (Vastus Lateralis).
  20. Medial Wide Muscle Hip (Vastus Medialis).
  21. Semi-recreak Muscle Hip (Semimembranosus).
  22. Front Tibial Muscle (Tibalis Anterior).
  23. Semi-dimensional muscle (semitendinosus).
  24. Long Malobert Muscle (Perneus Longus).
  25. Blood muscle (biceps) hips (Biceps Femoris).
  26. Ionic soda (Gastrocnemius).
  27. Cambalo-shaped muscle (Soleus).
  28. Short foot-finger extensor (Extensor Hallucis Brevis).
  29. Short extensor of the fingers of the foot (Extensor Digitorum Brevis).
  30. Tailor muscle (Sartorius).
  31. Great muscle (Pectineus).
  32. Direct muscle thigh (Rectus Femoris).
  33. Broad Fascia Latae (Tensor Fasciae Latae).
  34. Mid-sized muscle (gluteus medius).
  35. Long Palm Muscle (Palmaris Longus).
  36. Radie Wrist extension (Flexor Carpi Radialis).
  37. Shoulder muscle (Brachioradialis).
  38. Big breast muscle (Pectoralis Major).
  39. Breast-crook-cereal muscle (Sternocleidomastoideus).

Muscle functions of man

Every athlete who wants to pump up muscles and change the relief of the body, should know their anatomy and functions. Need to understand what exercises need to be performed how to increase weight weights in exercises . There are several muscles that participate in training most often.


From the muscles of the neck, it is possible to pump up the sternum-curable-lummy. She is responsible for head slopes in all directions, as well as turns. Its strengthening is important for those athletes who are engaged in football, boxing, struggle.

You can perform weighting exercises.


From the torso, special attention is paid to the stomach, back, chest muscles, neck.

  • Big breast is responsible for bringing upper extremities, lift up, lowering. It is necessary to perform push-ups from the floor or bars, bringing the hands on the block, beast from the chest. By the way, I have an article about that how to pump chest at home .
  • Straight abdominal muscle - for tilting the body forward. Beautiful relief can be created by performing twisting from the position lying. I advise you to read my article about that how to pump up fast press at home .
  • Bone outdoor abdominal muscles help in tamping forward, and also perform slopes to the sides. Trained during throwing spears, tennis games, performing side slopes and twisting.
  • Trapezoidal - with her help, the shoulders, movement with blades, as well as head-back and back and sides. Trains in weightlifters, gymnasts, during rowing and pressing upwards. Here is an article about How to pump a trapeze .
  • The widest - flexion of the body to the sides, handing back. Works when rowing, exercising gymnastics and weightlifting. You can train with tightening on the crossbar. Read the link in detail about How to pump back .

Upper limbs

The muscles of the hands are trying to pump up mostly men, but women will also be useful to find out the following information. To create a beautiful relief, it will takes work on such types of muscles of the upper extremities:

  • Two-headed (biceps) - flexion in the elbows, turning the brush. Trained at any exercises that include bending hands, as well as during rowing. Here is an article about How to pump up hands .
  • Kryvoid-Shoulder is responsible for the rise of hands. You can train during bowling, armrestling, spear throwing.
  • Shoulder - bringing the forearm. To train it, you need to make rowing, climb on the rope, perform the bending of the hands with the cargo. Here is a detailed article about How to pump your forearm .
  • Three-chapted (triceps) is responsible for the leading of the upper extremities back. You need to perform a rack on your hands, exercises associated with the extension of the hands.
  • Deltoids are responsible for the rise of the upper limbs. Train in the occupation of gymnastics, weightlifting, throwing. You can also perform tramp and weight lift. Read the article about How to pump Delta .

Lower extremities

Muscles legs are easier to train easier, there are many sports that give a load on the lower limbs.

  • The quadring is responsible for rotation and supination, straightening in the hip joint. All kinds of squats, press, extension of legs with weighting are useful. Trains also at cycling, football, mild athletics. Here is an article about how to swing a leg .
  • Biceps hips - for bending legs. To pump up, you need to perform any exercises associated with this movement. The most efficient exercise for the hip biceps is Dead Target .
  • Large beetal performs thigh reversal. Useful swimming, skiing, cycling. Read the article about how to quickly pump the buttocks .
  • The calf participates in the work of the knee joint, the turn of the foot. Useful semi-traces, jumping, running, bike.
  • Cambalo-shaped extensions foot. Train with lifts on the sock.
  • Tibra and Malobersova participate in turns and other foot movements. It is necessary to lift the socks.

Muscles man. findings

Today we talked about the muscles of the person in detail. Conclusions, in general, quite simple.

If you know the structure and muscle functions, you can learn to competently choose the exercises and achieve a steep body quickly.

Proper load distribution will help to avoid fatigue. Not to make mistakes start with my blogging for newbies . There, I told everything step by step and detail.

Regular muscle training increases their endurance, strength, provides beautiful body relief.

Be sure to fit sports, love your body and constantly improve, then your body will repay you strong health and beautiful shape.

Good luck to you!

P.S. Subscribe to blog updates . Further will only be cooler.

With respect and best wishes, Nikita Volkov!

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The dispute, what kind of muscles work in a particular exercise, it is perhaps most often. The question "And what muscles work in ...?" Also included in the top often asked.

Most do not understand that the term "works" itself in the context of the muscles is much more complicated than the simple "yes, it works" and "no, not working." Moreover, there is a different degree of work, both its quantities and a different context of the word "work". But first things first.


Load magnitude

The muscle activity affects the magnitude of the resistance against which it is reduced.

There is a term " Absolute maximum power "When the muscle literally stimulates electric shock from an external source to add to arbitrary reduction. Thus, the muscle becomes active as much as it can, without restrictions on the level of stimulation from the CNS. This is a real peak of the activity of this muscle at the moment of time at its current conditions.

Then, there is " Maximum arbitrary force "(MPS), which shows the level of activity / issued forces of this muscle with a maximum reduction due to the efforts of the Will only the subject. Already, we have an activity lower than 100% of the absolute maximum strength.

Moreover, there is an eccentric (when tensile muscle), concentric (with a reduction in muscle length) and isometric (at a constant length) of the MPS, which are different between themselves, and depend on the reduction rate (in the case of eccentric and concentric forces, under isometric conditions Speed ​​is 0). Therefore, for 100% is usually the isometric MPS (IMPS), to eliminate the effect of the reduction rate.


Also, in different articular angles / with different lengths of the muscle, the Imps is different. It also needs to be considered when you measure / take data.


Does this mean that at 100% of the muscle imprint as much as possible? It is believed that yes. However, with a decrease in the percent, everything becomes more difficult.


1 PM - (single-repulsive maximum, maximum per repetition) - already a dynamic test of force, usually in a multi-sowed movement, in which movement in a certain amplitude occurs, often in all three modes of muscle contraction, with the participation of many muscle groups and joints.

1 PM (dynamic test) will always be 10 ± 5% less than IMPS in this movement and articular angles, similar lower position
1 PM (dynamic test) will always be 10 ± 5% less than IMPS in this movement and articular angles, similar lower position

Recruitment and frequency of pulse

Muscles consist of various motor units (de) - low-thresholds (activated with a low strain voltage of the neural pulse, a large amount, little fibers in each de, are usually from slow oxidative muscle fibers) and high-thresholds (activated at high neural impulse voltage, Small quantity, a lot of fibers in each de, are usually made of fast glycolithic muscle fibers).


The first muscle strength / regulation mechanism is recruiting - the neural impulse voltage (in MV) is growing, and new, all higher-thresholds are activated with each new mavoltom. Everything is simple enough. Maximum recruiting de in the muscle can occur at 80% of the Imps. And how does power grow on?

The maximum sprint, taking and jerks create about 100% activation de. But does it mean that these exercises on all muscle groups at once?
The maximum sprint, taking and jerks create about 100% activation de. But does it mean that these exercises on all muscle groups at once?

The second mechanism is the frequency of the neural impulse (pulses per second, or Hz). The more often the impulses are submitted to the data de, the stronger they are reduced (or rather, reduced in a smooth tetanium mode when the fibers are operated for the entire reduction time at a maximum, without relaxation between pulses). It is this mechanism that adds strength after recruiting. However, these processes are in parallel.

After 80% of the MPS, the recruiting level remains the same, but the frequency of pulses continues to grow
After 80% of the MPS, the recruiting level remains the same, but the frequency of pulses continues to grow

The most interesting thing is that various muscle has a different ratio of low-threshold and high-thresholds de.

In muscles who have a lot of low-thresholds de, and practically no high-thresholds, recruiting very quickly exhausts itself - already by 40-50% of the Imps. Therefore, the muscles can be fully active (but not as much as possible!) Already at the low load.

In this small muscle, leading a thumb, 50% of type I fibers, but they make up 84% of all de, and only 2 de are high-thresholds
In this small muscle, leading a thumb, 50% of type I fibers, but they make up 84% of all de, and only 2 de are high-thresholds

Such muscles, usually, are small, moving small distal body segments (fingers, feet, wildcatter and ankle joints). By themselves, they are also weak. But, even on a small percentage of their small maximum of power, they are already active at 100%.


Therefore, for example, the activity during squats with a rod weighing 60 kg of the anterior tibial muscle can be close to 100%, even though 1 PM athlete is 200 kg! And the muscle itself is also far from its Imp.

The most interesting thing is that with EMG measurements, this muscle will have a low voltage, i.e. To be weakly active. Simply measure the voltage (recruiting), and not its frequency. Because There are many low-thresholds in the muscle, they will be active at low voltage.

Voltage control methods. Recruitment - Activation of new de. Dowing - Double voltage of one de contract. Frequency - more frequent activation of one de. Synchronization is the simultaneous activation of two or more de. The last method is not considered capable of increasing the issued force
Voltage control methods. Recruitment - Activation of new de. Dowing - Double voltage of one de contract. Frequency - more frequent activation of one de. Synchronization is the simultaneous activation of two or more de. The last method is not considered capable of increasing the issued force

Maximum activity is not equal to the maximum voltage!

Stabilization and movement - metabolic and mechanical work

If you take the classic exercises in the gym, then some muscles move in the joint (agonists), others help the first to carry out this movement (synergists), others work in the opposite direction (antagonists). And finally, the fourth, being stabilizers, hold the joint, the segment of our body or the whole body in its original position, stabilizing it.


Almost every skeletal muscle operating when performing movements can be included in each of these groups, depending on the movement. Moreover, even within the movement itself, its role may change due to the change of body position.

In essence, agonists and synergists are "working groups of muscles" in this movement. They are reduced, their reduction causes a torque in the joints, which is opposite to the moment on this joint, which creates an external load. If the exercise is dynamic, and this is the lifting phase of the projectile, then mechanical work occurs - this is the force multiplied by the distance that the projectile overcame (A = F * COSA).

Antagonists often interfere with movement, but their activity is important for braking joints at the end of the movement (zero angular velocity at the end of the movement) to avoid injuries. Also, they are to some extent and joint stabilizers. Work with an eccentric phase of movement.

Stabilizers do not make any mechanical work. Nevertheless, they make metabolic work - that is, all the same processes of the waste of energy and heat / disintegrating products occur as agonists / synergists. Simply, they do not act against the load, and do not cause the bone moving relative to each other (movement).

For example, in The press of lying with a barbell is observed noticeable activity of the middle departments of the deltoid muscle. With the same gym in the smith simulator, this activity will noticeably fade. The reason is that with free weight, the deltoid actively stabilizes the shoulder joint, which is not necessary when working in the simulator. However, in both cases, this is only metabolic work, and not mechanical, so both options for lying can not be attributed to the exercises on the middle department of the deltoid muscle.

The straight and oblique muscles of the abdomen can be active in squats by 100%, and even strained 100% of the Imps (the latter is doubtful, due to the lack of sufficient incentive), but they will only stabilize the body, performing metabolic work, and not move the bones relative each other to overcome the resistance of the shell weight.

Activity / Voltage is not equal to mechanical work!

Load vector

In the exercises, we always make a movement against some kind of load. It may be the weight of the projectile, inertia, the force of elasticity of the projectile, hydrodynamic resistance or something else.

The load is just a force having a magnitude and direction (vector).

The value determines the amount of force (Newton), against which we will create your Newtones - muscles generated.

Direction, or load vector - the same important factor as the value. Perhaps even more. We assign that you are doing the press lying. Just press the bar stand - from myself. Despite the fact that the breast muscles seem to work dynamically, moving the shoulder bone, as in the bench press, they will not be active and are tense, as during the back of the rod lying. Why?

Because free weight always presses down. Standing, you forcing the deltoid muscle to work to hold the weight (stabilization). But the movement is carried out forward-back when the load presses down. As a result, in this case it will be more difficult for you to keep weight on straight hands than to squeeze it from yourself.

In fairness, I will say that if you perform this movement quickly, with a small weight, then the power of the inertia will work against the muscles, which makes this movement not so useless. But we will miss this moment, because It was just an example.

But if you push forward standing against blocks or resistance tapes, which causes the strength of resistance in a horizontal vector, the activity of the chest will increase. Like the meaning of the exercise.

As a result, the position of our body and body segments regarding the direction of the load force can radically change the activity of certain muscle groups.

If, with extremely metabolic work, the muscle has F, but no s (from the mechanical work formula A = F * S * COSA), then with an incorrect load vector, the muscle can move the bones (to have S), but the resistance to this movement will not be (No f).

Also, using inclined / inverse bench press, we change the vector of load so that various muscle / muscle heads make more mechanical work - we need it.

It is important to observe the load vector to ensure the mechanical work of the necessary muscle groups!

Shoulder load - torque in the joint

The load creates a torque in the joint, which makes the mechanical work of the muscles responsible for the corresponding movement in this joint.

What the magnitude of the moment will create a load depends on the shoulder of the load force, or a long perpendicular between the load vector and the axis of rotation in the joint.


For example, in first part of the article about the buttocks You could read that the activity of various muscles depends on the shoulder of the knee / hip joint. Simply, those or other muscles will work against a greater resistance force - to make more mechanical work.

Changes in various parameters, such as anthropometry, angles / amplitude, position of the rod, etc. Also can change torque in the joint.

The torque in the joint is also inconsistently inside one exercise, especially when using free weight.

In the squats with a barbell, for example, the shoulder load for both joints will be maximally with a parallel gray. When rising, it will decrease by reducing muscle resistance and the mechanical work that they perform. However, adding resistance tapes, we compensate for this with a larger load when lifting weight.

In such movements, like a buttock bridge, or TKE, the load works directly into the joint, and the maximum shoulder load should be achieved with full extension.

When performing dilutions lying for breast muscles, the maximum shoulder load will at the bottom point, respectively, the maximum mechanical work will be made in the region of the lower position.

On the contrary, when information in crossovers, because of the other load vector, the shoulder of the load shoulder will be maximal when the movement is approached by the end.

When dilutions on the middle section of deltoid, on the contrary: work with dumbbells will give a maximum of the shoulder of power in the peak reduction, while breeding in the cable simulator / with ribbons - closer to the beginning of the movement.

It is important to understand what torque creates this load in this exercise, and how it changes during its execution!

Position of the body and its segments - Motor Pattern

The way we make movement can also significantly change muscle working groups.

Was shown , for example, that if you perform dead craving, not squat, then with equal shoulders of load on the hip joint in the thrust there will be more muscles of the back surface of the hip, in squats - buttocks. All due to the different position of the same body segments relative to others.


Also, the impact on the participation of certain muscle groups can have load percentage and amplitude - In the same squats with a barbell.


In the bending of the hands with a barbell, the first 50% lifting of the shoulder muscle, because of the larger shoulder of power, will be more active than biceps.


Changes occur in muscle functions. When extension of the shin in the simulator, the four-headed is an agonist, and the muscles of the back of the thigh - antagonists. But when squatting, both of these muscle groups work together! Just like the buttock, calf, cambaloid and front tibial muscles.

The straight muscle of the hip, the back surface muscles of the thigh and the calf muscle are doubled, ie, pass through two joints. The straight muscle of the thigh bends the pelvis and extensions the knee, the muscles of the back surface of the hip are infringement of the pelvis and bend the knee. When getting out of the squat, the extension of the pelvis and the knee occurs, as a result, these muscles are performed both dynamic and stabilizing function to different joints.


Moreover, the muscle group of the back surface of the hip can blend the knee, like the Muscle's buttock. The calf can both bend and blends the knee, depending on the corners in the joint and body position / load.

To determine the work of individual muscle groups it is very important to know which movement is carried out. The pattern / pattern of movement plays an important role, affecting the work and type of work of muscle groups in this movement!

Full version -

Types of simulators in the gym And how to deal with them.

Very often a person does not know which group muscle , He trains Exercise . In this article we will analyze the main muscle groups. Where they are located how and what Exercises To train them.

Read this article and you will see how simple.

Exercises and muscles

We will not deepen in anatomy and physiology. We will discern only those Muscles who need you know for Training in the simulator room .

Let's start below.

Ilicor muscles

The icy muscles are usually the most beloved among athletes. Unloved not because they are ugly, but because they are hardly trained and practically do not grow. Although it is so, I advise you to train the icy muscles once a week. Maybe they will not increase viewing, but they will be stronger.

икроножные мышцы

As you can see the shin consisting not only from the ionic muscles. But we need only icy muscles. Other leg muscles do not specifically train.

What is the function of these muscles? Very simple they raise our body up overlooking the heel from the floor and lower down. The greatest amplitude of the movement occurs when a person is caught by a weak on the rise or stage and can still be sank below the Misk.

Common ways to train the calf muscles is lifting on socks standing Or sitting in a simulator. You can still train caviar with a barbell or dumbbell standing on the stand.

If do it exercise Socks inside - more external portion of ICR trains. If the socks are directed outside, and the heels are closer, then there are more inner part of the icy muscles.

Blood muscle hips

Biceps of the thigh, or also call it the blood muscle of the thigh. She is on the thigh from behind. Below the buttocks. The work of this muscle bending the leg in the knee joint. Only this feature.

двуглавая мышца бедраAnd therefore Exercise For training this Muscles Little. it Flexion of legs lying in a simulator . Or Stop with straight legs with a barbell on shoulders. Although they say that the legs are straight, and it is necessary to bend them in the knee joint with slopes.

Four-headed ham muscles

The four thigh muscle is located, which is exactly the opposite of the biceps of the thigh, on the front surface.

четырёхглавая мышца бедра

Consists of four heads. The function of this muscle knee Sustain. In fact, this muscle has more functions, but we take what we need for training.

Accordingly, all exercises that extend the leg in the knee work are suitable for training.

This is an exercise straightening legs sitting on a simulator , squats и Rush legs Lyzh In various machines. GAKK-MACHINE, SMITE MACHINE, CALL FOOD LOGY IN Simulator . Squats with a barbell on the shoulders.

We are not talking about what simulators are better or worse. The task of this article is to do so that you would calmly focused in Exercises And they knew what muscles they train.

Buttock muscles.

Buttock muscles you know where. They will be baptized by the leg in the hip joint. Work when you make the leg back, or take the foot bent in your knee given to the stomach.

Simply put the leg pressed to the stomach. When straightening the leg, it is unfolded in the 2nd joints with a hip (the buttock works) and the knee (the four-headed muscles of the hip).

ягодичная мышца бедра

Exercises for buttocks: Sitting Pliera (squats with widespread legs). Warheading back Standing in a simulator. Normal squats on shoulders. What would the buttocks work in this exercise need to be descended as low as possible. Gakk car, Machine - Smith.

The simulator, the animals of the legs of the lying, weakly trains these muscles.

Direct muscle abdomen

Our favorite press. Press bends the torso inside. The yard stretches to the hip joints and vice versa. And it is very important. If you make the lower twisting without taking the bottom of the back from the backrest of the simulator, then you have the muscles of the thigh, and not the press.


Similarly, you do not need to be easy to fold in half when the upper twist is performed. Read more video below.

Exercises for Training press invented a lot. The main thing is not to fold in half, but tightening the chest muscles to the pelvis. And remember that you need to make a concentration. Concentration This is the added voltage of the muscles of the will at the time of the greatest reduction in the press.

Abdominal muscles

The abdominal muscles and gears believe that their training does not need fat from this workout is not reduced. Muscles are very small in size so they do not need them significantly. In general, only time training will lose.


But this does not mean that I absolutely do not advise you if you like, then do it - please. It is precisely exactly that these exercises will improve the work of the internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract.

Straight muscle back

The straight muscles of the back are two harness that start from the tailbone and reach the top of the spine. These muscles help us straighten up and get used forward. The figure shows only their small part. Under the name of the muscle spine extensors.

разгибатели позвоночника прямые мышцы спины

Exercises for the muscles of the extensors, you need such that will bleed back.

 Hyperextenia for straight muscles of the back, slopes down with a barbell on the shoulders . This muscle is still actively working when performing traction: Range traction, rod rods, horizontal block . When squatting with a barbell on the shoulders, the straight back muscle also helps other muscles to keep the vertebral pole.

I also want to say that our muscles do not work separately. You have already noticed it. When the movement of muscle groups turns into operation. According to this principle, training is laid.

We try to do not Isolated exercise , but Basic . So we save time. Improve the quality of workout. (Better and high quality work with muscles). And we get better the result, if you do not train isolated exercises.

The widest muscles of the back

The widest muscles of the back alone among the biggest muscles of the upper half of the body. These are strong muscles and are well amenable to training. In our youth, the guy who had a triangle back had been reckoned in a strong thoroughly. This triangle just define the two widest muscles of the back and shoulders.

shirochayshaya m spina

The work of the widest muscles is that they pull the hand to themselves. And raised hand up lowered down. Based on this, we get that to train these muscles we will fit: Tightening on the turnstile , Top and Horizontal Block , craving Dumbbells in the slope , craving Rods in the slope.

From pull-ups, the muscles become wider, and from the thrust (except thrust of the upper block) - thicker.

Trapezoid muscles back

The trapezium is also on the back, it is partially superimposed on top of the widest muscles of the back. There are three heads of the lower middle and upper. The bottom takes the shovel down, the average drives together both blades, and the upper raises the shoulders up.


Typically train only the top trapeze. Exercise Schrag . The average and lower trapezium is trained in the same way as in the widest muscles with various traction.

Schrag. The muscles are developing, which are involved in a snap for impact or throw in baseball, basketball and spear throwing, also when the ball is filled (and the cutting strike) in volleyball and tennis.

The powerful neck and a trapezium are excellent insurance when performing French presss or simple rods from the head and heavy squats. When performing Schrah with a barbell behind the back, the correct posture is produced, which you need not only in sports, but also in everyday life, as it significantly reduces the risk of spine injury.

Exercise technique

Stand smoothly. Feet should be placed on the width of the shoulders and slightly bent in the knees. Let the partner feed you the rod from behind. Take it should be grip from above (so that the palms watched back). The distance between the hands is a little wider shoulders.

Disagree, take your shoulders back and lift the chest slightly. Tighten the stomach so that the back is not bent, and the natural bending of the spine has been preserved. Hands should be completely straightened behind her back. In the initial position of the rod is located at the bottom of the buttocks. Watch clearly forward. Take a breath and hold your breath, lift your shoulders as high as possible. Do not bend your hands, they must be straight throughout the approach. All movements should occur only in shoulders! Legs, chest and back remain motionless. When you reach the top point, you need to strain the trapezoids, and try to keep the rod in this position for 1-2 seconds (in order to achieve maximum muscle contraction). On the exhalation, gradually lower the shoulders.


It is impossible to bother! All the time performing the exercise, be sure to keep the right posture. For maximum trapezium load, remove your shoulders away back and raise up the chest. Hold the entire approach to the torso in this position. In this exercise, the amplitude of the movement is less than in ordinary shragas when the rod is in front of the hips. Nevertheless, shragi with a barbell behind the back is much more efficient, especially for improving posture. Moreover, shragi with a barbell behind the back prevent the development of the "round" shoulders, which is a known problem with frequent execution of ceremonies lying and classic shragas.

You should not use too heavy bar, so it will reduce the already small amplitude of the movement. While lifting the rod should be kept breathing. Dana respiratory technique will provide muscles that hold back in the right position, the development of much greater effort than with ordinary breathing (about 20%). This will allow you to increase the weight of the rod, without changing the amplitude of the movement.

The chin should always be a bit elevated, keep your head smoothly, looks strictly ahead, take your shoulders back, and the chest is curved forward. When tilting the head down or aside, you risk getting a neck or back injury. You can not be flexing the elbows during the lifting and lowering of the rod or the amplitude of the movement will be reduced, and the load on the trapezoid will decrease.

And the upper trapeze is well trained squats with barbell on shoulders иBroan style . If you do at least one of these exercises, then the upper trapeze is provided to you.

Breast muscles

Breast muscles know everything. They have lower, medium and upper bundles.

Function of the chest muscles: moved to the side to hand to move to the position in front of them.

grudnie mishci

We usually train by gentlemen. Pets of dumbbells Lözia , Rodes Lözia . Breeding dumbbells Lözia . Push ups on the bars .

If you do the press and layout lying on the back head down. Then the lower part of the chest muscle works. And when push-ups on the bars, the lower beams are also working. If you do the press and laying the lying on the back head up, then the upper part of the muscle.

Because accents on the muscles of the chest (both head down and head up) are very minor. I recommend to train the muscles in the usual horizontal position.

Muscles shoulder

Shoulder muscles - Delta. They are divided into three beams front, medium, rear.

The front raises the hand in front of him. Middle raises the hand from below up side up. The rear hand turns forward takes back across the side.


Based on the above-written Delta, such exercises are suitable for: lifting dumbbells in front of them - Front beams.

Lifting dumbbells through parties - Medium bundles work. Breeding dumbbells through the parties up, the torso is tilted horizontally semi face down - rear delta.

Lives with dumbbells or barbell sitting, or standing. Worker the front and middle bugs of the delt. The bar is lowered in front of me if it is lowered for a head, then the shoulders will not refine.


Biceps - double-headed shoulder muscle. She bends his hand in the elbow joint and turns the palm up (supination). Consists of 2 heads outdoor and internal heads.

At the moment of supinal, I want to stop separately. Here you are standing hands omitted. Bend your hand in the elbow joint, and then Deploy the palm top . What happens? If you have done everything right, then the biceps have declined even more (strained).

Now knowing this moment you will understand why biceps need to train only a straight barbell.

Z-rods, curved rods and frames are not suitable for training biceps. Yes, keep the barbell in them is more convenient, but does not happen complete muscle tension due to the fact that there is no supination (palm reversal up). And the muscle is completely not tightened.

bicepsiExercises For training biceps: Rod rise to biceps standing , Rock dumbbells on biceps standing or sitting (with supination) , Bench Larry Scott , Concentrated raising dumbbell on biceps sitting Tightening the reverse grip. In any exercise where the hand is bends in the elbow joint - biceps work.


We continue our lesson about what muscles work in the exercises you have. Triceps is opposite the biceps on the back side of the shoulder bone.

It has three heads outdoor, middle and inner. The work of the triceps to blend a hand in the elbow joint and Peel the palm (Low palm down). Therefore, all the press and lowering of the hands on the triceps should be done in the same way as the biceps on the smooth rod. Whatever the pronation would be performed. So triceps is better strained. Quality.


Exercises for training triceps: Rodes Lözia , POWER STANDS LOGY NARM ENGLISH . Push ups on the bars .  Lowering a block on a simulator for triceps . Everything French press with a barbell or dumbbell.

In general, in any gym, the triceps will work. For example, the bench rod standing. Triceps work together with the shoulders. But the triceps is not convenient to train this exercise. And they do not surpage the load.

Muscle forearms.

Muscles from the elbow to the brush are the muscles of the forearm. They are responsible for the work of the brush. All rotating movements, up - down, the muscles of the forearm are responsible for them to the right and left brush. And for the power of grip, the brush also corresponds to the forearm. In the forearm more than 8 m m muscles, therefore, the name is not necessary to memorize.


Exercises for muscles forearm. There is a grip. Those. All exercises under which you have to hold a barbell or horizontal bar. Such exercises as: Tightening , Vis on the crossbar for a while, deadlift Without belts. Almost all exercises for hands that you do work your forearm muscles.

Especially training forearm muscles. You can make a hang on the horizontal bar, wrinkle with a barbell sitting on the bench palms up and bending the wrists with a barbell sitting on the bench palms down. Rotating simulator for forearm rotation from himself, then to himself.

There is a huge amount of effective exercise for weight loss at home developed for many years to fitness coaches. They are effective and tested in practice, do not require any special training. The main thing is to be patient, realizing that obtaining the result takes time, revise your diet, because without a reduction in the number of calories consumed, it is quite difficult to lose weight.

How is fat in the burning process?

Without theoretical knowledge and understanding of what is happening in the body when the fat layer "splits" when physical activity is performed, it is impossible to achieve a truly good effect of weight loss and muscle extensions. Regular training, of course, allow you to get a good body, but only a balanced and competently built food will make it even more beautiful.

To get rid of not only from unnecessary kilograms, but also from fat deposits, three important points should be taken into account:

  1. Be sure to consume fewer calories.  This does not mean that it is necessary to simply calculate the energy value of the products, "throwing out" from your usual menu any food to reduce calorie. It is necessary to get rid of those products that have excessively high energy value. The daily diet should be calculated on the amount of calories fully processed by the body, as the surplus is most often turned into fat.
  2. Control insulin level.  Insulin is necessary for transporting glucose obtained from food to muscle cells to fill glycogen stock. The latter substance plays a significant role in the recovery process after each workout. The lack of control over an increase in insulin is capable of increasing body weight. And in order not to get an opposite effect, you need to eat carbohydrates only in the right and defined time for such a meal.
  3. Trade exclusively on a regular basis. It is impossible to lose weight when it comes from time to physical exercises. Of course, the best way to control the periodicity of classes is to visit the gym, but even by virtue of employment there are many fat burning programs that can be successfully performed at home. The main thing is to be able to control ourselves, do not invent excuses for our own laziness.

Best fat burning exercises at home

Excellent are suitable for performing at home those who wish to become slim.

The exercise was designed specifically to use the muscles of the bark, legs, the upper part of the body. The study of several muscle groups at once makes beropy quite complicated and heavy performed, but the fat burden effect with its help fully justifies those efforts that are attached.

Because of the following scheme:

  • legs standing, put on the width of the shoulders and squat;
  • Lingering in the accepted position relate to the floor with both hands;
  • Make a jump back legs and lowered the chest;
  • raise the chest and jump forward legs;
  • return to the "squats" position;
  • Rise to the feet, make a jump up so that the hands are raised towards the ceiling.

Push ups

Are part of an absolutely any training program, regardless of the goals set, which is easily explained by the feature of the exercise itself. Pressing includes all the muscles of the body, allow you to increase or lower the level of difficulty of execution.

Push ups as follows:

  • hands rest in the floor, taking the position of the plank;
  • Foot fingers are on the floor;
  • lower the body so that it fully formed a straight line;
  • Exhale and return to the initial position.

Repeat pushups from 10 and up to 20 times. The number of repetitions depends on the level of own preparation.

Jumping Jack

When there are no difficulties with the execution of beropy and push-ups, it is necessary to make jumps that are fairly simple cardio exercise. They burn calories very well, can be made at home.

Performing Jumping Jack:

  • legs put on the width of the shoulders;
  • start jumping and moving hands up and down;
  • Move hands must be masher.

Rotation of feet

Beautiful rhythmic exercise that requires only one minute to execute. It is specifically designed to study the press and the inside of the hips.


  • Standing straight, hands put on the back of the head, the leg raise and bend at right angles, rotate in a circle of about 15 seconds;
  • Next, they do a similar movement, but already on another leg.

Everything for each leg is obtained by 2 approaches.

Jumping with a rope

Simple and easy exercise, ideally suitable for both men and women. The main thing is to have a rope. Jump on the rope you need about half minute. If the level of preparation allows, first the pace is chosen by the usual, and then increase the intensity. Forcing it to penetrate carefully, such jumps help to lose weight perfectly.

A beautiful and fairly effective exercise that affects literally for every muscle in the human body. There are many variations of its execution. To work out the shoulder belt and back, you should take on the crossbar of your hands, pulling up until the chin crossbar is reached. Sunk repeat the same thing. Biceps can be accelerated and when tightening in the lying position.

Exercises for building muscle mass at home

Along with a slimming, many people still want to get a decent dry increase, that is, devoid of fat muscles. This goal can be achieved without visiting the gym. Exercises to receive an attractive and relief body also allow you to burn calories, but this effect is minor, since the main focus is on the increase in muscles, and the calorie consumption increases significantly and then when a person is at rest.

Beautiful adaptive under the individual features of training exercise. It can be simplified and complicated.


  • Standing, legs are located on the width of the shoulders;
  • Hands are located along the body, in front either on the back of the head;
  • Move back, lower hips and buttocks.

The back is held directly with a little deflection in the back area.

Daily diet and food additives for weight loss

The optimal loss results are achieved when regular training accompanies compliance with the correct diet, and in some cases consuming special food additives.

To achieve a good slimming effect for a relatively short period of time, you need:

  • Eliminate products with high oils, sugar, fats, replacing them on a more healthy alternative . Instead of fast food products, there are vegetables with fruit. Healthy and proper food gives the body absolutely all nutritious essentials that are required by a person.
  • Drink more clean water . To maintain a water balance, because during the classes, the moisture comes out with abundant later, it is necessary to drink water.
  • Refrain from alcohol . It contributes to the accumulation of fatty deposits.
  • Eat rich protein products . Protein is an essential element for the "construction" of the body. And since sports is a kind of "bodybuilding", this substance is necessary for the growth and restoration of muscle fibers. In addition, the protein is directly involved in the process of control over its own weight.
  • Do not allow overtraining. A large number of training does not allow the body to quickly restore, which is also very bad.

The more different muscle groups simultaneously involve when performing a certain power exercise, the more active it is an exercise affects the production of growth hormone, testosterone and other anabolic hormones needed for muscle growth and increase the mass.

In this article we will analyze in detail what muscles work when walking on foot - so you will clearly see how effective this exercise is effective. For some reason to move on foot, many people are pretending to be biased, considering it a gentle view of the load. In fact, walking on foot in different ways: quickly, with an alternation of tempo, uphill, with weights, etc. And with a competent combination of different variations, it will be quite a full-fledged cardio training.

Variations of movement on foot

Let's list in detail what muscles are swing when walking on foot to understand its benefit and effectiveness to the end, find out which there are variations of moving on foot:

Every athlete is free to choose any subspecies, depending on the goal. The usual and Scandinavian walking is recommended by people recovering after injury or long breaks. Also, the exercise can practice pregnant women, elderly.

For weight loss It is desirable to choose an exercise with an increased load - lifting uphill, interval subspecies, using a dumbbell or belt with weighting.

The sporty option is more often practiced by professional athletes who are directly involved in this sport. Either include it in the warm-up complex.

What works when we walk on foot (incl. In place)?

So we go to everyday life - to the store, to work, for a walk in the park. At the same time, we force our body to work. What muscles are involved in the process?

If we say that, the muscles are involved, almost the whole body, then do not exaggerate.

  1. The main load is obtained by the thigh muscles: the rear surface, and quadriceps (four-chapted hips) work;
  2. Also operates a large jagged muscle;
  3. Oracle muscles are also involved;
  4. Works press, biceps and triceps, delta;
  5. Cora's muscles perform the role of a stabilizer.

What musculature works when lifting up a mountain or up stairs?

Above we listed, which muscles are involved in the usual walking on foot. If a person becomes a mountain, the same groups will work. However, quadriceps of hips will receive the greatest load in this case, large butodic and back muscles. This type of training is perfect for weight loss, it helps to form a beautiful leg face and priests. That is why he is so loved by the representative of the beautiful half of humanity.

What works at interval walking on foot?

The essence of interval movement is to alternate a quick and calm tempo. In the process of movement, the same muscle groups work as in the usual variation, but much more active. The interval method requires large energy costs, respectively, muscles work stronger. They need more time to restore, so such training is carried out no more than 2 times a week.

What muscles are involved in Scandinavian walking?

This exercise is basic in the health of the majority of European programs. It allows you to support muscles in a tone, strengthens the heart and lungs, does not overload the body, favorably affects the mood. He has almost no contraindications!

Which muscles are trained when walking the Scandinavian way, let's list: the muscles of the cervical and shoulder department, delta, chest and blade muscles, press. At the same time, the load is distributed evenly. Muscles of feet and buttocks are most actively involved.

What works when walking

Walking is different from the usual implementation technique. It is clearer, rhythmic, always at a high pace. Professional walkers are able to develop speed up to 18-20 km / h!

In the process of movement, one foot always remains on the surface, it is its main difference from running. The body is important to keep straight, without tilting it forward. With fast walking, the muscles of the legs are working, large butodic, calf muscles, as well as muscles.

How to improve workout efficiency?

  1. First of all, remember, the success of any sport exercise is directly proportional to their regularity. Develop a program and stick it clearly;
  2. Never stop on the result. Increase training time, use weightlifiers, include interval variations in the complex.
  3. Buy yourself a convenient fitness and good sneakers;
  4. We recommend downloading your favorite tracks in the player and go to the music;
  5. The minimum distance to overcome the day - 5-8 km;
  6. Remember, your muscles are actively working while walking, so it is important for them to give the opportunity to relax. Keep track of the quality of your sleep and nutrition;
  7. Drink water and eat less salts;
  8. When walking on foot, the muscles are strengthened if the athlete is gradually increasing the tempo, and closer to the completion of the workout, it slows smoothly;
  9. It is advisable to do in the mornings, especially if you strive for weight loss;
  10. Try to arrange workouts in green parks with clean air, away from highways.


So, we figured out which muscle groups work when walking on foot in different variations. As you understand, this exercise allows you to strengthen muscle tone, improve athlet's endurance. What is the benefit?

  • Cardiovascular and respiratory system strengthened;
  • The mood improves, the stress goes, the hormonal and metabolic processes are normalized;
  • Improves coordination of movements;
  • Bundles, joints and tendons are strengthened;
  • The posture is straightened.

Watch, lots and long. Do not underestimate this exercise, it is enough to remember what muscle groups are affected by walking, and it will be clear to you that it is useful, not less than running. Meanwhile, the latter is much more contraindications. Do not refuse Sports, even if for medical reasons he is prohibited. Find a moderate type of load - walk in the park every day or try Scandinavian walking. Remember, movement is life!

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