First aid at low pressure: what to do with hypotension
Posted On 23.02.2021
How does the pressure drop in man manifest?
Regardless of the cause of the arterial hypotension, this condition is characterized by a violation of the tone of the vessels and a sharp weakening of cardiac activity. As a result, the blood supply of brain cells is reduced, which begin to test oxygen starvation.
Most often such symptoms of reduced blood pressure appear:
dizziness, darkening and flies in front of the eyes;
noise in ears;
skin pallor and increased sweating;
Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), which occurs as compensation for the restoration of blood flow;
constant weakness, drowsiness, fast fatigue;
syncopal states (loss of consciousness, fainting);
Violations of the menstrual cycle in women.
With a long continuing hypotension due to chronic oxygen starvation of the brain, encephalopathy develops, which is characterized by memory violation, the concentration of attention, intelligence. Another dangerous complication may become an abstruit-brain injury after falling due to frequent losses of consciousness.
In most cases, the hypotension is characterized by the gradual development of symptoms, which makes it possible to notice signs of reduced pressure and provide first aid.
What are the reasons most often drops pressure?
There are two main types of arterial hypotension - physiological and pathological. In the first case, the patient feels absolutely normal, he does not express any complaints, since the indicators for him are quite ordinary. In such a situation, assistance is not required. If low pressure is a sign of some particular disease, the clinical picture includes additional symptoms that significantly worsen the quality of human life, leaving the idea of the concomitant disease.
Primary, or essential hypotension develops according to the reasons inexplicable for modern medicine. Doctors suggest the impact of the amount of factors: individual genetic features, reduced (sometimes increased) physical activity, excessive emotional and mental loads, irrational nutrition.
When the cause of the hypotension is a specific disease, we are talking about secondary (symptomatic) hypertension, which develops as a result:
receiving certain medicines or poisoning them (most often it happens in overdose of drugs for the treatment of hypertensive crisis);
dehydration of the body on the background of fever, long-term vomiting or diarrhea, increased sweating (hyperhydrogen);
acute or chronic bloodstures;
starvation (postprandial hypotension).
A special type of such state is an ortostatic hypotension, in which low pressure symptoms appear with a sharp change of body position, for example, when rolling. The condition is more characteristic of the elderly.
Treatment of hypotension
If the patient has occurred, the above symptoms try (as possible and with the presence of appropriate skills) to measure pressure with a tonometer. If the results are lower than normal, it is necessary to immediately provide the victim first domanticine care. When despite your efforts, the condition does not improve, it is recommended to call the urgent brigade.
The first assistance in hypotension is provided by this algorithm:
Put a person on a solid smooth surface. Lift the lower limbs, slide a slightly head to ensure blood flow to the central organs - the brain and heart. This provision is called anti-shift.
Ensure the influx of fresh air. To do this, open the window if you are indoors, and free the respiratory tract, unbuttoning close clothes.
If the patient has preparations from hypotension, help him accept them.
Give the victim to drink hot sweet tea or coffee. You can also suggest to eat something salty.
If the patient has lost consciousness, follow these actions:
Provide anti-shock position.
Do not beat the injured on the cheeks. Square it with cold water or give a sniffing alcohol. Just do not stick the bottle with a liquid with a liquid to him under the nose. Randomly taped and turning the bottles, you can cause serious chemical burns of the nasal mucosa. Just drip a bit of a substance on a napkin or handkerchief and bring it to the nostrils - it will be quite enough.
If a person does not come to himself within 1-2 minutes, call ambulance.
When the attack of hypotension has emerged for the first time, you should immediately turn to your doctor to the clinic for a preventive examination.
Feldsher Emergency Development Brigades should act for this protocol:
Posted by the patient anti-shock position if it was not done earlier.
Determine the presence of respiratory disorders, if necessary, to begin oxygen therapy with artificial ventilation of the lungs.
Provide peripheral venous access (catheterization).
Start infusion of a solution NaCl 0.9% at a rate of 40 ml / kg / h. If necessary, to introduce colloids (20 ml / kg / h.).
Every 15 min. Conduct pressure, saturation, pulse at the carotid artery.
If infusion therapy is not effective, to perform intravenous administration of vasopressors ("norepinephrine" 2-8 μg / min. Or "Dopamine" 10-15 μg / min.), After dissolving them in 400 ml of 0.9% of the RG NaCl.
Keep decompensating bradycardia or other arrhythmias.
With the development of hypothermia to carry out warming activities.
In the absence of positive dynamics, hospitalize the patient.
In a hospital, you need to catheterize the second peripheral or central vein, continuing the infusion therapy with colloids or crystalloids. Do not stop the introduction of vasopressors whose doses can be increased if necessary. With low SAO2 (saturation), it is necessary to ensure the supply of oxygen. If there are no positive changes, extended diagnostic measures should be conducted to find other possible causes of hypotension and the appointment of specific treatment.
Arterial hypotension is a rather dangerous state causing hypoxia of brain and hearts. It develops both as a result of individual innate features or lifestyles and due to specific pathologies. Despite the fact that the state is mostly reversible, the situation requires close attention due to possible complications.
On time, the assistance provided under reduced pressure has a huge impact on the next patient's forecast. Therefore, if you have a hypotonik in your family, it is extremely important to know the rules of action in such cases.
We understand how dangerous reduced pressure, and whether it is necessary to "raise it" urgently.
What is reduced pressure, whether it is dangerous and how to turn it into normal - tells the readers of Women'shealth therapist and cardiologist "Dawn" Clinic Oksana Dickur.
What is it at all - reduced pressure?
Blood pressure is the force with which the blood presses on the walls of the arteries. At the moment when the heart is reduced, the pressure is highest - it is called the top, or systolic. In the interval between the heart blows, the pressure in the vessels falls - it is called the bottom, or diastolic.
Normal blood pressure is in the range of 90/60 to 120/80 mm Mercury Pillars. Numbers 90 and 120 denote systolic, and 60 and 80 - diastolic pressure. If the indicators are less than 90/60, the pressure is considered reduced. This condition is called hypotension.
Low pressure is dangerous?
Many are most often thin women - live with hypotension for years and feel great. Doctors believe that these people are lucky: they are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases.
However, if the pressure suddenly falls below the usual level, unpleasant symptoms may appear:
nausea or vomiting;
The feeling of weakness.
As a rule, at a young age, the risk for health is associated not with the reduced pressure itself, but for the reasons, due to which it falls. Exclusion - fainting. "This is the most disturbing symptom, since it often leads to injuries and accidents," said Oksana Dickur, therapist, cardiologist Clinic "Dawn" . - If hypotension is accompanied by loss of consciousness, you must refer to the doctor. "
But for the elderly, the decline in blood pressure can be really dangerous. Moreover, the drop in diastolic pressure is more dangerous than the reduction of systolic.
"This may lead to a deterioration in the blood supply to the kidneys and brain, increase the risk of developing stroke and renal failure," explains Oksana Dickur.
What does hypotension occur?
If you dramatically change body position
Quickly stand up or, for example, get dramatically in bed. This is called orthostatic hypotension. When a person takes a vertical position, blood under the action of gravity rushes to the legs and the area of the abdomen, and the pressure in the vessels falls. In order to raise blood out of the legs and normalize the pressure, the vegetative nervous system of heart rate and narrows the vessels.
Healthy people do not experience unpleasant sensations, since this mechanism works very quickly. But in some cases the vegetative nervous system gives a failure. As a result, the pressure drops, the blood does not have time to climb out of the legs, the brain lacks oxygen, and symptoms of hypotension appear. This happens, for example, in pregnant women, people with some diseases like diabetes and every fifth elderly person.
Sometimes such sensations arise from healthy people, for example, because of the heat, and there is nothing terrible. But if the head is spinning every time you change the posture, you need to consult a doctor.
After eating, the blood sticks to the gastrointestinal tract, and that pressure does not fall too hard, the vegetative nervous system narrows the vessels and enhances the heart rate. However, about a third of the elderly, it does not cope with such a load. This condition is called postprandial hypotension. If this happens - you need a doctor's help.
If you grow too quickly
As it is easy to guess, the problem most often happens in children and adolescents: due to the rapid growth in the work of the vegetative nervous system there is a failure. As a result, when changing the posture or when the slope appears symptoms like dizziness and fainting. This is called a neuro-mediated hypotension. Children will usually develop the problem, and the hypotension passes by itself.
But sometimes neuro-mediated hypotension is a sign of serious neurological diseases. In this case, a person needs help a doctor.
Pressure may fall from people with dehydration, those who have suffered shock, in diabetics, patients with arrhythmia and heart failure. In this situation, doctors tend to cure or take control of the disease, which leads to hypotension.
If you take some medicines
Sometimes hypotension is a side effect of anti-tesry drugs, diuretics, painkillers or pressure pills. In order to solve the problem, a doctor, as a rule, is enough to adjust the dose of medication.
And if this is a vegan dystonia?
Vegeta dystonia is a non-existent diagnosis that is like to put on the territory of the former USSR. If the doctor is trying to write off the low pressure on the VDC, it is worth finding another specialist who will find out why you really don't really do.
How to turn down the reduced pressure into normal?
If the pressure is constantly below the norm, but you feel good, do not do anything. If you are bothering nausea, dizziness or fainting, you need to consult a doctor.
It will not be possible to understand independently: low pressure may be a symptom of a variety of diseases, and to find out the true cause, you need to pass the tests and surveys. This is very important because the treatment method depends on the diagnosis.
But there are general recommendations that should be observed in hypotension:
Give up psychoactive substances
Alcohol, tobacco and smoking mixtures, which are used, for example, in hookahs, can reduce pressure. In addition, the effects on the vessels sometimes have preparations that the patient was prescribed completely with other purposes. Therefore, if you take medicines or dietary supplements, you need to be informed about the attending physician.
Eat enough liquid and salt
In the summer, a person quickly loses water and minerals. Adequate amount of water significantly reduces the risk of hypotension.
Avoid situations that provoke hypotension
The pressure may fall due to a stress, strong stress or fright, and if you stand for a long time, sharply stand up or eat very tightly.
At the first symptoms of hypotension sit down or lie down
Get up only if it became better.
Wear compression linen
This recommendation concerns only pregnant women. Pick up the appropriate option will help the attending physician.
Perform simple exercises
With hypotension useful:
Sit in the post "foot leg";
strain the muscles of the hands, squeezing and sprinkling the fists;
Work with a manual expander.
In general, the physical activity increases blood return to the heart and increases blood pressure. Therefore, regular aerobic loads and light strength training reduce the likelihood of hypotension.
Drink coffee, strong tea or cocoa
Drinks with caffeine give good, though, unfortunately, the short-term effect.
Do not self-medicate
The decision on the appointment of drugs or treatment methods should take only a doctor after a full-time consultation. However, it is worthwhile to take into account that the effectiveness of beta-adrenoblockers and steroid hormones, which in our country are often used to treat hypotension, is not currently proven.
What is blood pressure
Arterial pressure (AD) is one of the health constants, which can be judged by the state of the body. This concept is associated with the constant work of the heart muscle, which, as a pump, injected blood into large vessels.
When passing by arteries, blood flow puts pressure on their walls. From the elasticity of the walls of the vessels and blood volume falling in them at the time of the reduction of the heart muscle, the tests depend.
Normally blood pressure in an adult - 120/80 mm. RT. Art. The first digit is the pressure at the time of the maximum reduction of the heart muscle, it is called systolic or top. The second characterizes hell with maximum relaxation of the heart is the lower or diastolic pressure.
Normal pressure indicates a sufficient level of oxygen in the blood and high elasticity of vessel walls.
Not only the work of the heart and the state of the vessels are affected by the blood pressure, they may vary under the influence of a number of factors, for example, emotional state, weather, physical exertion.
Arterial pressure needs to be constant. A immediate appeal to a doctor with a declined drop or increase will allow to identify health problems at an early stage and avoid the risks of developing serious pathologies.
Causes of low pressure
Reducing hell no more than 20 mm RT. Art. - This is a relative norm, usually these oscillations are temporary and not reflected in general well-being. About the pathology say when, for a long time, the indicators do not exceed 100/60 mm Hg. Art. This condition is called arterial hypotension and is divided into several types:
Physiological. Low pressure at rest is often celebrated from professional athletes, in people working in harmful industries living in high-mountainous areas with a rarefied atmosphere. Also noted in living in conditions of very low or high temperatures, for example, in the extreme north or in the regions with a tropical climate. This type of hypotension is called adaptive or compensatory.
Pathological, that is, arising against the background of systemic diseases or a decrease in physical activity. This state leads to a deterioration of blood circulation. Violation of blood pressure regulation mechanisms and the development of hypotension can occur due to hormonal imbalance, for example, with hypothyroidism or adrenal dysfunction. Hereditary predisposition also plays a big role. Another reason for a sudden reduction in blood pressure may be an acute allergic reaction - anaphylactic shock.
Neurogenic - diagnosed mainly in adolescence, is often a consequence of brain injuries or vegetative disorders. The hypotension of this type arises against the background of disorders of the functions of the nervous system or brain circulation problems.
Medical. The reason for a sharp decrease in blood pressure is often in an uncontrolled reception of drugs to reduce pressure or diuretic agents.
The reduced blood pressure may be a symptom of various diseases, in this case they say the secondary arterial hypotension. The decrease in pressure is typical for osteochondrosis, inflammatory infectious diseases, heart failure, stomach ulcers and a number of others.
A sharp pressure decrease can occur against the background of anaphylactic shock, strong bleeding, intoxication of the body, long dehydration. The tonometer will show low blood pressure in chronic fatigue, constant lack of sleep, depression.
Hypotension may also be a consequence of improper nutrition, when a person to lose weight quickly turns into a diet with a significant calorie deficiency. In women, pressure often drops with strong bleeding during menstruation.
Important! The choice of drugs to increase and reduce blood pressure cannot be done independently or on the advice of acquaintances. This may aggravate the situation and lead to irreversible consequences.
Understand the reasons for pressure reduction and only a doctor may appoint proper treatment after a comprehensive survey.
Low pressure symptoms
The manifestations of hypotension depend on the causes of its appearance and form of the disease. If the pressure drops due to the existing disease, then the main symptoms will be the signs of basic pathology. They will add a constant feeling of fatigue, general weakness, irritability, rapid pulse, headache, reinforced sweating.
Physiological hypotension is most often for a person by the usual state, and it may not have any discomfort.
With a sharp decrease in blood pressure, a person can lose consciousness or complain about:
doubt when walking;
In such a state, there is a significant pale of the skin, the scalance of the gait, a certain confusion of consciousness is possible, the inhibited speech.
Acute condition requires immediate medical care.
Important! If you have noticed a change in facial expressions, loss of orientation, strong shortness of breath or excessive excitement with signs of hallucinations, immediately call an ambulance. These symptoms are characteristic of a preinstant and pre-infrack state - in the case of them, every minute.
How to increase the pressure quickly and efficiently
Medicinal preparations for enhanced pressure appoints only a doctor. But to help a person in an acute situation and facilitate his condition with a sudden attack of hypotension and without medicines.
To drink a cup of strong fresh-hearted coffee - the best solution. Caffeine has a pronounced vesseloring effect, so it reduces the pressure well and has a tonic effect.
Impact on some biologically active points irritates nerve endings and activate the process of blood circulation. Massage has a beneficial effect on all organism systems, accelerating metabolism and toning vessels.
Important! Massage - the procedure for active impact on the body and trust it follows professionals with medical education. Improper massage technique can cause significant harm to health.
Massage can improve mood, remove spasms, get rid of head and articular pain, normalize sleep.
Power Increased Power
If the reduced pressure is not associated with internal diseases, it is easy to normalize, including some products in the diet:
Green tea - it is well tones and improves blood circulation;
kefir, ryazhenka, prokobvash, cottage cheese and other fermented milk products;
Celery root, which can be added to salad or other dishes;
Strawberry, fresh vegetables and fruits - carrots, tomatoes, pumpkin, apples;
The diet under hypotension is aimed at increasing the total tone of the body, the replenishment of the deficit of vitamins and minerals, the acceleration of metabolic processes and normalization of the water-salt balance.
The tincture of medicinal herbs is widely used to increase the pressure and the overall strengthening of the body. For safety and avoid risk of incorrect dosage, it is better to buy tinctures in the pharmacy and strictly follow the instructions on the package. And in the future it is better to consult with the doctor and choose the compositions that he recommends.
Tincture of ginseng
Ginseng root is used in medicine more than two thousand years. One of the main properties of this plant is the ability to regulate blood pressure. Depending on the dosage, the tincture of ginseng root is used and to increase, and to reduce pressure.
Reduced pressure when taking tincture occurs due to:
increasing the general tone of the body;
strengthening the walls of the vessels;
normalization of emotional state;
Accelerating metabolic processes.
Before taking a ginseng tincture, you must consult with your doctor and make sure that there are no contraindications.
This is a proven remedy for nervous disorders, problems with immune system and low arterial pressure.
It is believed that the tool increases performance and accelerates metabolism. It is prescribed with the overall exhaustion of the body, physical overloads, anemia, atherosclerosis. Biologically active substances contained in the tincture increase the tone of vessels and normalize pressure.
The dosage and duration of the course of treatment determines the doctor on the basis of the severity of the symptoms and the absence of contraindications.
Chinese lemongrass is a kind of curly Lian. The medicine uses its fruits, which include essential oils, organic acids and microelements useful for the body.
The tincture of lemongrass increases the tone of the vessels and has a general consensus effect. The remedy can be used to quickly raise the pressure and normalization of well-being.
Important! All means based on medicinal herbs can be used only as auxiliary methods of therapy. They should be taken only after agreeing with the doctor in the recommended dosage.
How to increase pressure urgently
If the pressure dropped sharply, and at hand there are no medicines, it can be rapidly raised by the following methods:
eat something salty, for example, salty cucumber, tomato or slice of well salted saline;
drink a lot of simple clean water;
Raw strong coffee and drink small sips.
With repeated attacks, you need to consult a doctor or cardiologist for advice and go through a comprehensive examination.
Increased pressure without drugs
Some people do not trust traditional medicine and prefer to be treated with folk remedies. If poor well-being is associated with suddenly fallen pressure, for example, due to a sharp change of weather or long flight, you can try it without medication:
take a contrast shower;
eat several pieces of black chocolate;
To drink a couple of cups of strong natural coffee - yes, coffee can really help to help.
However, if hypotension is associated with existing diseases, such express methods are better to avoid not harm the body.
Medication to increase pressure
Drugs for increasing pressure are prescribed in emergency cases or with long hypotension. The choice of drug is carried out on the basis of the nature of the disease and survey results.
Main groups of drugs to reduce pressure:
Caffeine-based preparations are used to urgently increase pressure in critical situations. They are injected intramuscularly or intravenously ambulance or hospital doctors. Caffeine is contraindicated in violation of heart rhythm and heart failure.
Analeptics affecting the respiratory and vascular centers of the brain.
Glucocorticoids - increase the pressure due to the narrowing of the vessels, are used quite rare due to the large number of side effects.
Means-adreminimetics affecting the muscles of the heart, vessels and some other drugs.
Any drug enhancements apply only to the prescription of the doctor and strictly in the dosage indicated by it.
Tips and recommendations
Arterial hypotension is a dangerous state that can be a precursor of serious problems with brainwriting and the first sign of an approaching stroke or infarction. You can increase pressure in different ways, but they must all be approved by the attending physician.
Any heart problems and vessels must be solved comprehensively, and self-health is unacceptable here. It is also not necessary to rely on populic medicine - medicinal herbs can be part of the therapeutic complex only as auxiliary means.
For normalization of pressure, stressful situations should be avoided, normally falling out, abandon the bad habits and pay attention to the right diet.
How to improve pressure for a long time
To secure success, you can make changes to your lifestyle and increase pressure for a long time. For example, you can:
Go to a diet with an elevated salt content - but quite a bit, it is important not to go out for adequate recommendations;
Reduce the consumption of alcoholic beverages;
In hot weather drink more liquid;
Ask a doctor to evaluate medicines that a person is prescribed to accept. Perhaps some of them hypotension is a side effect;
Play sports - at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week;
Reduced stay while standing still.
If necessary, the doctor can recommend elastic compression stockings that close the caviar and the thigh. They will help limit the influx of blood to the legs - and will preserve more blood at the top of the body.
Reduced blood pressure can be an independent disease or symptom of other systemic pathology. In any case, it is necessary to solve the problem comprehensively and under the strict control of the doctor. Ignoring attacks and rejection of treatment can lead to serious consequences.
A.V. Barsukov, A.M. Karimova, Yu.Sh. Khalimov, D.V. Glukhovskaya problem of arterial hypotension in young patients in clinical practice // Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. - 2016. - №3 (55)
Hypotension (reduced blood pressure, hypotension) is a state in which blood pressure is lowered below normal level.
For some people, hypotension is a natural state that does not cause symptoms and is usually not a cause for concern. However, if the blood pressure level drops unusually low, it may limit the influx of blood to your brain and other vital internal organs, which leads to the appearance of instability, dizziness, pre-spanning condition or fainting.
Consult the therapist if you are experiencing symptoms of hypotension. Adults should check its blood pressure at least once every five years. If you do not know how to measure blood pressure yourself, contact your doctor.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of a mercury pillar (mm Hg. Art.) And fixed in the form of two indicators:
systolic pressure: blood pressure at the moment when the heart is reduced and pushes blood in artery;
The diastolic pressure is blood pressure at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle between two abbreviations.
For example, if your systolic blood pressure is 120 mm Hg. Art., And your diastolic blood pressure is 80 mm Hg. Art., Your pressure is 120 to 80 and is usually written as 120/80 mm Hg. Art.
The normal blood pressure level is between 90/60 and 140/90. If the testimony is 140/90 or more, you have increased blood pressure (arterial hypertension), which leads to a greater risk of developing serious heart diseases, such as a heart attack or stroke. People with blood pressure level of less than 90/60 are usually considered hypotonics.
Reduced blood pressure can be for many reasons, including: time of day, age, air temperature, reception of drugs, injuries and some diseases. If hypotension causes unpleasant symptoms, then the doctor may prescribe treatment.
Symptoms of reduced pressure
If the reduced blood pressure is natural for you, it is unlikely that it will cause you any symptoms or will require treatment. However, sometimes reduced pressure may mean that blood flow to your brain and other vital organs is insufficient, which can lead to the emergence of such symptoms as:
instability or sensation of equilibrium loss;
Damage in the eyes;
Fast or irregular pulse (heartbeat);
feeling of nausea;
If you experience the symptoms of reduced pressure after changing the position of the body, for example, after lifting to your feet, it is called postural or orthostatic hypotension. Symptoms should not last longer than a few seconds, while your body does not adapt to a new position and the pressure will not come to normal. This type of reduced pressure is stronger than people as they become older, leading to more frequent drops. Such symptoms can also appear after performing exercise. You should measure pressure before and after changing the position of the body. For example, - first in sitting, and then - in the standing position. If the difference in the testimony of your systolic pressure is from 15 to 30 mm Hg. Art., Most likely you have orthostatic hypotension.
If symptoms appear after meals, we are talking about the so-called afternoon (postprandial) hypotension, most characteristic of the elderly, especially people with high blood pressure, Parkinson's disease and diabetes mellitus. After eating, the digestive system needs a large amount of blood for digesting food. If the heart rate frequency does not increase enough in order to maintain blood pressure, it will decrease by causing symptoms of hypotension.
Some people experience symptoms of hypotension after a long stay in a standing position. Sometimes it is called neuronally mediated hypotension. Most often it affects children and young people.
If you think that you may experience the episodes of reduced pressure, you must:
Stop performing what at the moment do;
sit down or lie;
Drink some water.
Symptoms usually pass within a few seconds or minutes.
Causes of hypotension
Every time you measure blood pressure, it is important that you do it in the same conditions to ensure the comparability of the results. In the event of a reduced pressure, your doctor will first consider possible situational reasons for its occurrence, and only then - possible depth reasons.
Changing blood pressure depending on what you do during the day is quite normal. Stress at work, air temperature, your nutrition - all this can affect the indicators of your blood pressure. Many factors affect your heart and blood circulation during the day or even an hour. Below are situational factors that can cause a decrease in blood pressure.
Time of the day - your blood pressure drops overnight and rises during the day.
Your age - with age, your blood pressure is usually rising, but the pressure drops more often due to your movements or meals.
Finding in a state of stress or relaxation - the more you are relaxed, the lower your blood pressure
The volume of exercise performed - at first, the performance of physical exercises increases your blood pressure, but if you regularly train in a healthy condition, then your blood pressure will fall during the rest.
Temperature - an increase in air temperature can cause you a drop in pressure
After a meal - blood will be used to digest food in your stomach, in connection with which the blood pressure in other areas of the body will be lowered.
The main reasons for low pressure (hypotension)
If the reduced blood pressure fails to explain with one situational factors, more serious reasons should be considered. Some possible options are described below.
Reception of drugs. Pressure reduction can cause such groups of drugs as:
Preparations for lowering blood pressure;
Beta blockers - preparations that can be appointed if you have problems with your heart;
Alpha blockers - preparations appointed to reduce blood pressure in people with elevated blood pressure (arterial hypertension) and with problems with prostate gland (prostate iron or prostate - small iron in men, located between the genital organ and bladder);
In the case of prescribing a drug that can cause you a drop in pressure, a doctor should discuss with you possible side effects and regularly check your pressure.
Dehydration of the body (dehydration) It may occur either as a result of excessive sweating in particularly hot weather, or as a result of vomiting or diarrhea (diarrhea).
Heavy diseases or conditions. With short-term (acute) disease, your blood pressure will be regularly measured, as it is a good indicator of the severity of your illness. Heart diseases, such as heart disease or heart attack, can also cause a decrease in pressure, because your heart may not be able to pump blood throughout the body.
Neurological violations , such as Parkinson's disease, damage the nervous system of your body. Pressure may decrease if the autonomic part of your nervous system is damaged. The vegetative nervous system regulates the life processes in the body, which you normally do not think, such as sweating or digestion. It also regulates the expansion and narrowing of your blood vessels. If there are problems with your vegetative nervous system and your blood vessels remain too extended, it can lead to a decrease in pressure.
Hormonal disorders. The presence of a disease that disrupts the production of certain hormones in your body, such as diabetes or Addison disease, can also cause pressure drop. In the illness of Addison, the immune system attacks and damages the adrenal glands, which are two small glands, located just above your kidneys. They produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and maintain the balance of salt and water in your body. Reducing the pressure may also occur due to damage to your adrenal glands, for example, infections or tumor.
Causes of sudden pressure drop
Reduced pressure can be caused by serious injuries or burns, especially if you have lost a lot of blood. Another possible reason is the state of the shock after a serious injury.
Septic shock and toxic shock syndrome caused by bacterial infections. The bacteria attack the walls of small blood vessels, resulting in a leak of fluid from the blood into the surrounding tissues. This causes a significant decrease in blood pressure.
Anaphylactic shock , or anaphylaxis, is caused by an allergic response of the body. During an allergic reaction, your body produces a large amount of histamine chemical substance, which causes your blood vessels to expand, leading to a sudden and severe blood pressure.
Cardiogenic shock It occurs when your heart cannot supply enough blood to your body, leading to a drop in blood pressure. This can happen during a heart attack.
Other causes of hypotension
Other possible reasons for reduced pressure are presented below.
The mismatch between the heart and the brain is a reduced pressure that appears as a result of a long time in a standing position (neuronally indirect hypotension). This happens when the signal comes from your body into the brain that your blood pressure is too high, whereas in fact it is too low. Accordingly, your brain gives the team to slow down the heart abbreviation, which leads to an even greater decrease in blood pressure.
Anemia is a disease in which the amount of hemoglobin or erythrocytes in the blood is lower than the normal level.
Long-term stay in bed.
Genetic predisposition - in a number of studies, a hypothesis was studied that reduced pressure is genetically determined. If your parents have reduced pressure, it is possible that you can inherit it from them.
In some cases, there is no obvious cause of reduced pressure.
Diagnosis of hypotension
Hypotension (reduced pressure, hypotension) can be easily diagnosed by measuring blood pressure.
Blood pressure is usually measured using a tonometer (pressure gauge), a device that consists of a stethoscope, cuffs, a measuring instrument, air supercharger and valve.
The cuff turns around your hand and pumped up to limit the blood flow in the artery. Then the air in the cuff start slowly to slow down, listening to the pulse with a stethoscope.
Listening to the pulse in the scene below the cuff with descent air allows you to get reliable data on the readings of your blood pressure. Many therapeutic offices are currently equipped with automatic (digital) tonometers that measure pressure and pulse using electrical sensors.
Before proceeding to measuring blood pressure, you should relax for at least five minutes and empty your bladder. To get the right blood pressure testimony, you need to sit and do not talk during pressure measurement.
After measuring the pressure, your doctor or nurse will inform you the systolic pressure indicators (for example, 120 mm Hg. Art.) And diastolic pressure (for example, 80 mm Hg. Art.) Like two digits, in this case - 120 to 80 (120 / 80 mm Hg. Art.).
It is easily diagnosed with reduced pressure, but it is much more difficult to identify its cause. If a certain disease occurs as a reason for lowering pressure, then most likely you will also experience other symptoms. You should discuss them with a doctor who may benefit you to conduct additional analyzes.
Additional analyzes may include blood tests to check the presence of anemia, the measurement of the blood glucose level, or the electrocardiogram (ECG), to detect possible disorders in the heart rhythm.
Treatment of hypotension
Hypotension (reduced pressure, hypotension) usually requires treatment only in cases when causes serious symptoms. Treatment includes both general guidelines for lifestyle and direct treatment aimed at the main causes of this disease. If reduced pressure, you have natural origins and does not cause problems, then its treatment is rarely necessary.
Follow these recommendations to cope with the symptoms of hypotension:
Stop gradually - especially if it is a morning rise from bed. Also before lifting it can be useful to start with warm-up movements in order to increase the frequency of your heart abbreviations and improve blood circulation in the body. For example, in front of the lift, stretch, if you lie in bed, or shift the leg to the leg several times if you are sitting.
Avoid long-term stay in a standing position - it can help prevent neuronally mediated hypotension (reduced pressure caused by mismatching of the connection between the heart and the brain).
Wear supporting stockings - sometimes they are called compression stockings, and they are wearing elastic socks or tights. They provide additional pressure on their feet and stomach, helps to improve blood circulation and increase blood pressure. However, it is better to discuss this with your doctor, because it is not suitable for everyone.
Avoid the use of caffeine in the evening and limit the consumption of alcohol - this will help you avoid dehydration of the body, which can cause a decrease in pressure.
Tyight more often and small portions - this will help prevent the occurrence of the so-called afternoon hypotension, (lowering the pressure after meals). If you follow or sit after meals, it can also help.
Dehydration of the body (dehydration) can cause a decrease in pressure. Credit with it helps an increase in fluid consumption and salt. If you drink more fluid, it leads to an increase in blood volume and raising blood pressure. Also specify your doctor, in what amount of extra salt you need and can you add salt into your usual food, or you need to take salt pills. It is better not to increase the amount of salt in your diet, without consulting a doctor.
If your doctor assumes that the drugs you use cause a pressure drop, it can assign you an alternative drug or adjust the dose you received. When taking drugs, follow your blood pressure and write it down. Tell your doctor if you experience side effects when receiving the drug.
If the reduced pressure is caused by a certain disease, the doctor can direct you to the profile specialists for further analyzes and treatment. For example, if your reduced pressure is associated with hormonal diseases (see. Causes of low blood pressure), you can be directed to an endocrinologist who can assign a hormone-replacement therapy to you.
Preparations for the treatment of reduced pressure are prescribed only in very rare cases. With symptoms of hypotension, it is usually possible to cope with the introduction of the changes described above into your lifestyle, in particular, by increasing the consumption of fluid and salt. If the treatment is still needed, it will usually include drugs to increase blood volume or narrowing arteries. By increasing the volume of blood or narrowing the arteries, your blood pressure will increase, since a larger amount of blood flows through a smaller vessel area.
What doctor to apply for hypotension?
If you want to cure reduced pressure, find a good therapist. If in addition to low pressure, you are experiencing other symptoms, use our section "who treats it" to find out to which specialist you need to contact.
Reduced hell Normally observed in young people of the asthenic constitution, athletes, residents of high mountains. The symptom includes common pathological reasons: nutritional insufficiency, anemia, neurocirculatory dystonia, various endocrine diseases. To identify the etiological factors of reduced pressure, a general and biochemical blood test is carried out, the assessment of the hormonal profile, instrumental methods (ECG, ECCG) and functional samples. To relieve symptoms, adaptogens, nootropics, vitamin and mineral complexes are used in addition to etiotropic therapy.
Causes of low blood pressure
Some people have blood pressure indicators within 90/60 mm Hg. Art. are an option for the norm. At the same time, well-being and performance is not violated, but when in the stuffy premises, a feeling of foolishness, weaknesses are characterized. More often, constitutional hypotension occurs in young girls, people of asthenic physique. There are some more options for physiological reduced blood pressure:
Orthostatic . It occurs with a sharp transition from the horizontal position to the vertical. Manifested in eyes, weakness, dizziness.
Compensatory . It is noted among the residents of high-altitude regions, all functional systems of the organism of which were adapted to the reduced voltage of oxygen.
Postprandial . Developed 10-20 minutes after meals, mainly when using a large amount of carbohydrate food.
Athletes are possible a combination of reduced blood pressure with bradycardia. The condition is due to the addictiveness of the body to constant overloads. Hypotension is manifested in meteo-dependent people with high humidity, sudden weather change, changing time zones. A short-term pressure drop occurs in response to the effects of electromagnetic fields, radiation.
25% of pregnant women in the early deadlines are reduced blood pressure. The condition is a consequence of a sharp change in the hormonal background. Usually the problem is aggravated with toxicosis, which is caused by chronic losses of fluid and electrolytes with vomiting. Another typical cause of reduced pressure in gestation is iron deficiency anemia, which is diagnosed with 40-45% of pregnant women.
Compliance with strict diets is the most common cause of reduced blood pressure in young women. The symptom is associated with a disadvantage of the main nutrients, vitamins, iron. The clinic appears gradually. Worried about weakness, disassembled ability. With quick walking, the lift on the stairs is shredded. It gets hard to get up in the mornings: there is a dizziness, weakness in the legs, tremor muscles.
Blood pressure has often caused a violation of nervous regulation. This cause is more characteristic of young, emotionally labile patients. Women suffer more often. For reduced blood pressure in such cases, sharp weakness, darkness in the eyes, gulp headache, leather pale is typical. Symptomatics is provoked by long standing on the legs, lack of oxygen, stressful situation.
Reduced blood pressure is one of the main symptoms of anemia. The clinical picture is standard - weakness, dizziness, intolerance to the stuffiness. With anemia, the pressure reduction is accompanied by a sharp pallor, which is continuously preserved, and not only with a deterioration in the state. Taking into account the reasons for the reduction of hemoglobin, additional features are possible: hair lone and nails, "lacquered language", paresthesia.
Signs of constantly reduced blood pressure - a specific symptom of hypothyroidism. Such patients are marzed even in warm rooms, feel drowsiness and weakness. Pressure reduction is manifested by headaches, dizziness. With a long existence, the problem worsen memory and mental performance. Chronic decrease in blood pressure occurs in patients with adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease).
Organic lesions of CNS
Hypotension develops as a reaction to violation of the mechanisms of regulation of cardiovascular activity. It is observed with concussions and bruises of the brain, degenerative processes affecting a gray substance. For these states, the presence of a resistant reduced blood pressure is characterized, which cannot be normalized by standard therapeutic measures.
Reduced pressure - a sign of many urgent situations accompanied by shock. A sharp drop of blood pressure is manifested by a strong dizziness, pre-imaging state, chills and drowsiness. Shock often ends fainting. The skin becomes pale, covered with cold sweat. Signs of reduced blood pressure are characteristic of several groups of states:
Complications of pharmacotherapy
Overdose of hypotensive drugs is a common cause of pathological reduced blood pressure in the treatment of hypertension. The symptom is more often noted when taking diuretics, nitrates, beta blockers. A feature is that unpleasant sensations in such patients may appear with normal indicators of the tonometer - systolic pressure at the level of 100-120 mm Hg. Art. This is due to the restructuring of all organism systems, adaptation to arterial hypertension.
In the primary inspection, the therapist or cardiologist assesses the constitution and nutritional status, conducts a physical examination of the respiratory and cardiovascular system. In addition to the standard blood pressure measure, the daily monitoring of blood pressure is recommended for the full picture. Diagnostic search involves the appointment of a set of laboratory and instrumental methods:
Blood tests. In the hemogram, the hemoglobin and erythrocyte content is often reduced, with infectious shock there is a high leukocytosis. With a biochemical study of blood pay attention to the level of general protein, electrolytes, cholesterol. With symptoms of anemia, the indicators of serum, ferritin, transferin are investigated.
Hormonal studies. When the resistant reduced pressure is identified, the level of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, hormone pituitary, TSH, is measured. In blood and urine, the concentration of catecholamines, steroid hormones of adrenal glands determine. According to the indications, the level of insulin and C-peptide is evaluated.
ECG. It is used as a screening method to assess the electrical activity of the heart. If cardiogram detected heart rate disorders, signs of myocardial ischemia, echocardiography is necessary. At Echocrine, the contractile ability of the heart is evaluated, the abnormalities of the structure are found.
Neurological examination. In the absence of other reasons for low adhesion, the patient is sent to a neurologist. To evaluate the work of the vegetative nervous system, the doctor conducts tests with breathing delay on inhalation and exhalation, orthostatic and clinostatic samples.
Help before diagnosis
With a low blood pressure clinic, a person needs to lie down, lifting legs up. You must open the windows to have fresh air access. With a feeling of foolishness, the face and neck rinse with cool water. Patient gives a drink strong sweet tea or coffee, caffeine tablet. With short-term hypotension of these actions, it is enough for the state to normalize. If states are deteriorating, urgent medical care is required.
The first step in the treatment of reduced blood pressure is the normalization of lifestyle, physical activity and nutrition. If the state is caused by the reception of hypotensive medicines, a dose correction is carried out or a drug is replaced. When selecting conservative measures, they proceed from the main cause of hypotension. The following groups of drugs are used to treat reduced pressure:
Charity preparations . Prescribed for iron deficiency anemia in the form of oral or parenteral forms. With a reduced level of hemoglobin, on the background of vitamine-deficient states, the preparations of cyanocobalamina B12, folic acid are recommended.
Adaptogens . Medicines based on vegetable extracts are intended to increase the adaptive capabilities of the body. They are effective in physiological reasons of reduced pressure and as an addition to the etiopathogenetic therapy of other hypotension options.
Nootrops . Preparations are prescribed to eliminate cognitive violations that are caused by chronic insufficiency of cerebral blood supply. To strengthen the effect, nootropics are accepted in combination with cerebroprotectors and antioxidants.
Adrenomimetics . Showing for emergency care at shock states accompanied by a sharp drop of blood pressure. Most often hormonal drugs are administered - adrenaline, norepinephrine. In critical states also apply anagetti.
When a chronically reduced blood treatment is detected, drug treatment is complemented by physiotherapeutic methods. To improve compensatory capabilities, hydromassage are used - hydromassage, shower Charco, mineral baths. Under the neurological causes of hypotension, the technique of electrospa, the electrophoresis of the collar zone is effective. With neurocirculatory dystonia and emotional lability, a course of psychotherapy, phytotherapy, is recommended.
Low pressure: Methods of normalization
Often, it is necessary to deal with some general signs of malaise, which could be associated with the disease, but the main symptoms lack. Sleepiness, reduced performance, dizziness, weakness can be rejected by weeks and months, remind of themselves from the case towards the case, will be explained by excessive loading or unloved sometimes of the year. However, their reason is usually much more prosaic, but also more dangerous - it low pressure Which doctors are called hypotension or hypotension.
What is hypotension?
Arterial hypotension or hypotension - This is the condition of the body, in which central blood pressure decreases by more than 20% compared with the norm. Since 120 mm Hg is considered normal arterial pressure. systolic pressure or 60 mm Hg. Middle blood pressure, then hypotension is diagnosed under the corresponding indicators - 90/60 mm Hg. Justice it should be noted that low pressure It is more correct to call an exclusively hypotension, since hypotension in medical practice calls a condition characterized by the weakening of the tone of blood vessels. However, these concepts are often identified.
The decrease in pressure leads to a deterioration of well-being, because the brain is inconsistent with oxygen and nutrients, which supplies blood flow to it. As a result, dizziness, weakness and drowsiness occurs, even fainting.
You can diagnose reduced pressure using a tonometer, and for funny confidence, a general analysis of blood and urine is prescribed, blood test for electrolytes, ECG, echo-kg, determining the level of cortisol. If it is necessary to establish the cause of the hypotension and causeing its diseases, then the patient can be directed to the radiography of the chest organs, an ultrasound or CT of the abdominal cavity, the ultrasound of the vessels of the lower extremities.
Most often low pressure Diagnosed in women of 30-40 years, whose activities are associated with mental, intellectual labor. In the old age, atherosclerotic hypotension is in a frequent disease, the condition in which the vessels are so strong as atherosclerosis, and the muscle of the heart is so flaky, that blood flows very slowly and the pressure weakens accordingly. Another popular circumstance in which hypotension develops is a professional passion for sports. Professional athletes, ballerinas, dancers often the body goes to a certain "gentle mode", when, with constant physical superloads, the heart slows down and the pressure drops.
The body can react with low pressure on such external physical conditions as an increased humidity and high air temperature, the prolonged effect of the ionizing reaction and the high-frequency electromagnetic field, as well as the effect of allergens, which is characteristic of professional hypertension (in pharmacists, doctors, laboratory technicians, etc.). During the adaptation period to climatic conditions, differing from the usual (in highlands, plague, tropics), the development of temporary physiological hypotension is likely.
Causes of low pressure
Low pressure is sometimes characterized by idiopathic character, that is, it happens spontaneously and unfortunately. Frequent manifestations of hypotension for incomprehensible for patient reasons should be a reason for the examination, because the cause of the development of deviation in any case lies in the abnormal functioning of a particular organ or system. The dysfunction factor may be the most ordinary condition for the patient.
Among the main factors, hypotension can be allocated:
excessive physical superloads;
Low physical activity, hypodynamia - a decrease in the volume of muscular activity among other things determines the weak function of the heart;
adaptation to unusual climatic conditions (highlands, tropics, subtropics, plague);
Hypovolemic shock, that is, a sharp decrease in the volume of circulating blood (most often severe injuries - blood loss, burns) determines the dehydration of the body, a sudden drop in blood pressure and oxygen deficiency;
Reducing the tone of blood vessels (anaphylactic shock, septic shock);
injuries of the head and spinal cord, the dislocation of the cervical vertebra C1;
heart disease (bradycardia, heart attack, problems with heart valves) determine the probability of pressure reduction;
diseases of the endocrine system (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypoglycemia) may be the cause of reduced pressure;
Critical conditions of the body - cardiac, pulmonary, renal failure, etc.;
Vegeta dystonia is a hypotonic type of somatoformous vegetative heart dysfunction;
Pregnancy - During this period, the blood circulation system in a woman is increasing in the amount, the artery tone is weakening;
violations of psychological stability - neurosis, psychological injuries, panic disorder, chronic lack of sleep, chronic fatigue, constant stress, depression and other apathetic and depressed states;
due to a sharp rise from the lying or sedent state (orthostatic hypotension);
due to insufficient or defective nutrition, restrictive diets (lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid causes anemia);
Due to the imbalance in the ratio of the number of hours of rest and labor.
Heavy allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) can cause problems with breathing, urticaria, itching, larynx swelling and a drop in blood pressure.
Low pressure symptoms
The clinical picture of the arterial hypotension is very diverse on the one hand and is very individual with the second. In other words, low pressure It is manifested by many symptoms in different combination of them, and deviations proceeds in different ways in various people and in different life periods in the same patient.
Reducing blood pressure is also characteristic of those receiving some categories of drugs:
Diuretics (or diuretic);
Some types of drugs for treating depression (tricyclic antidepressants);
Sildenafil (Viagra), especially in combination with nitroglycerin.
The person suffering a hypotension is a lot of disadvantages, individually characteristic temporary weakness or fatigue, but it is experiencing them constantly, with some changes.
Low pressure symptoms are a variety of combination of below:
shortness of breath and shortage of air already with minimal physical exertion;
Head, pain, dizziness;
semi-resistant and fainting states;
sweating palms and stop;
Disorders of thermoregulation, in the morning the body temperature can be reduced to 36 ° C;
Sometimes a decrease in appetite, nausea;
sometimes belching, heartburn, meteorism;
Men may have a reduction in potency, and in women - the menstrual cycle;
Non-permanent pain in the joints and muscles due to the weak supply of their blood supply.
Such symptoms in many respects repeats the clinical picture of the vegetative dystonia ("Vegeta dystonia (ICC) on the hypotonic type"), the diagnosis of which is often established with complaints to the doctor. Each separately symptom does not bear tangible harm to the patient, however, they are considerably significantly reflected on the quality of life.
Classification of arterial hypotension
Arterial hypotension on provoking the factors and segments of the manifestations of symptoms is divided by doctors for several varieties.
Acute symptomatic hypotension
A sharp drop in pressure, for example, with myocardial infarction, pulmonary artery thromboembolism, severe forms of arrhythmia, strong blood loss and allergic reactions. Requires urgent help.
Chronic (or physiological) hypotension
Blood pressure at 90/60 mm Hg, which can be diagnosed in any - young people are more susceptible to hypotension than older people, however, for the latter reduced pressure can cause a stroke. This level of pressure may not cause significant discomfort and be their individual norm.
Primary (or idiopathic) hypotension
An independent disease that develops against the background of long-term emotional overvoltage or stress, as a result of which such a form of a negros-like disease of the brain vascular centers is implemented.
Develops against the background of other diseases or due to the reception of some medicines. The hypotension is usually accompanied by osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, ulcer of the stomach, anemia, hepatitis, pancreatitis, cystitis, tuberculosis, rheumatism, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the endocrine system or respiratory organs, oncological diseases, shocks, brain injuries, liver cirrhosis, mental injuries, circulatory disorders, heart failure, alcoholism and other types of intoxication, starvation and exhausting diets, hypovitaminosis E, C and group V.
Professional hypotension (including training)
Reduced pressure due to professional factors, for example, permanent work deep underground or, on the contrary, at high altitude, work with potential allergen substances (for example, doctors, laboratory technicians, employees of chemical enterprises). This category can be attributed to professional athletes who have a decrease in pressure becomes a safety measure from the body in response to permanent and excessive physical exertion. Such circumstances do not lead to disabilities, but the change of profession is best reflected in well-being.
It develops with a sharp change of climatic or weather conditions, because the level of pressure is influenced by increased humidity, radiation of electromagnetic fields, radiation, etc.
It is necessary to take therapeutic procedures only at the first manifestations of the hypotension, since in the first stages it is easier to eliminate the negative effect of low pressure on the body as a whole. As part of the treatment, it is not necessary to experiment and rely on your knowledge, it is important to consult a doctor who will prompt an effective scheme after a detailed examination in each case. Treatment Low pressure Rarely begin with pharmaceutical preparations. To eliminate the problem, it can be enough to change the lifestyle itself. If it does not help, folk remedies, and pharmaceutical preparations, and even a spa rest are recommended for a patient.
What kind of adjustments in lifetime can stabilize blood pressure? Much depends on the causes of hypotension, individual qualities of the patient and symptoms of the disease in each particular case. Consider some circumstances.
Ways to adjust the lifestyle
Low physical activity
It is important to choose an adequate physical activity. Helping can swimming, running, skiing, aerobics.
It is important to normalize the mode (with alternating mental and physical exertion) and allow yourself a full sleep (8-10 hours). It is a dream that is the main synchronizer of biorhythms in the body, stimulants of the functional activity of the cardiovascular system, parasympathetic and sympathetic departments of the autonomic nervous system.
The best solution to the problem is to translate to another job.
Attribute the normalization of the state may, for example, hardening - daily druising, wipeing, contrasting shower, which has a tonic effect on the recipe apparatus of the skin, vascular tone and on the immune system.
The presence of the underlying disease
Obviously, all efforts should be sent to the treatment of the underlying disease, which will later lead to normalization of pressure.
Reception of plant stimulants, adaptogens of natural origin, which improve the tone of vessels and blood pressure (for example, the tincture of Eleutherococcus, ginseng, lemongrass, aralia). From medication to people suffering from reduced pressure, novotropic drugs are prescribed, cerebroprotectors, antioxidants, antidepressants.
Reception of medicines
Reception of any medicines must be coordinated with a doctor and evaluate the prospect of developing side effects. If one of those becomes hypotension, the drug must be replaced, or reduce its dosage, but under the control of a specialist.
Compliance with some rules in nutrition - increased use of potassium (potatoes, eggplants, cabbage, apricots, prunes) and calcium with vitamin D3. It is important to eat at least 4 times a day.
Professional sports activities
Before burning a child in a sports section, visit the children's cardiologist. Especially greater load on the heart is given hockey, figure skating and football.
Therapeutic effect can have a massage, needleflexotherapy. The most effective in the arterial hypotension therapeutic massage of the cerheth-collar zone, calf muscles, hands.
Changing the lifestyle in accordance with the above informed information is primary, but it is possible to combine preventive measures in any way, even adhering to them all at the same time.
Pharmaceutical preparations for low pressure normalization
As mentioned earlier, faces with Low pressure It will be absolutely relevant to plant stimulants, the so-called adaptogens of natural origin are tinctures, decoctions and pills based on Eleutherococcus, ginseng, lemongrass, aralia, hawthorn. They improve the tone of vessels and normalize blood pressure. However, may be unpleasant to people with increased sensitivity to such components.
From drugs, people suffering from reduced pressure are prescribed nootropic drugs, cerebroprotectors, antioxidants, antidepressants, whose specific names defines only the attending physician.
Among other things, the drugs can be:
Citrate - with head, menstrual, articular pains;
Ortoh Taurine - with vegetative dystonia, increased fatigue, premenstrual syndrome in women;
Saparal - toned-proof in asthenic and depressive states, neurasthenia, hypotension, as well as for the prevention of mental and physical overwork;
Nootropyl (piracetam) - with dizziness, violations of attention, the need to stabilize intellectual and emotional processes;
Glycine - to improve metabolic processes in brain tissues, helps reduce depression, irritability, sleep normalization.
Folk remedies for low pressure normalization
In parallel with the pharmaceutical preparations of the patient, people can take people to stabilize the pressure, but certainly coordinated by the attending physician. Among popular and efficient recipes are as follows:
Lemongrass - 15 g of dry berries crush, pour boiling water (300 ml) and peak on low heat for 15 minutes, not allowing boiling; cool, strain; take three times a day of 1 tbsp.;
Lingonberry - squeeze 1½ cup of juice from fresh berries, take into three receptions daily;
Celery - squeeze the juice from the leaves, take 1 tbsp. three times a day;
Lemon - 3 Lemon Skip through the meat grinder, put in a 2-liter jar, add ½ l of cold boiled water and remove into the refrigerator; after 1.5 days, add 250 gr. liquid bee honey, mix and re-put in a refrigerator for 1.5 days; Take three times a day at 50 gr. half an hour before meals;
St. John's wort, Nather, Pijm, Ephedra, Lemongrass, Tataknik - to join dry herbs in equal proportions; 1 tbsp. the resulting mixture of brew ½ l boiling water, insist 45 minutes, strain; Take 1 tbsp. Three times a day after meals;
The feeling of "fools" after a stuffy bus, fatigue after a long night's sleep, "goosebumps" before the eyes after a sharp rise from the bed ... These and other symptoms may indicate a decrease in blood pressure - hypotension. And if numerous studies are devoted to hypertension and the principles of treatment are well developed, then with hypotension not everything is so obvious.
What is it, what is it caused, how is recognized and treated? We are talking about this with our permanent consultant, a physician, a Cardiologist "Clinic Expert Voronezh" Kalinina Anatolyevna.
- Anatina Anatolyevna, what is hypotension? Is it a diagnosis or syndrome?
Hypotension is reduced blood pressure. It happens just a symptom and diagnosis.
What does "reduced pressure" mean? This is a condition in which the figures of blood pressure are below the expected person in this situation. Moreover, it is interesting: even if the pressure decreased by 20-30 mm.T. And while it remained within the boundaries of the norm, but the person began to feel worse, this condition can also be regarded as hypotension.
Read the material on the topic: What should be arterial pressure from a child?
Hypotension is physiological and pathological. Physiological is a variant of the norm. Maybe, for example, be noted among the trained athletes, people living in conditions of highlands or hot climate.
Pathological hypotension. This includes an essential (or primary) hypotension (hypotonic disease), symptomatic (or secondary) hypotension, as well as idiopathic orthostatic hypotension.
Below is the norm - this is:
Arterial pressure below 100/60 mm Hg. Art. In men and 95/60 mm Hg. Art. among women
According to other data - the pressure below 100/60 mm.rt.st. people under 25 years old, and below 105/65 mm.rt.st. - older than 30 years
The most common from pathological essential hypotension. It is expressed in a steady decrease in blood pressure with characteristic manifestations.
Secondary hypotension is a consequence of other disease or the use of the drug.
- Low pressure is what? At what figures can we say that the pressure is below the norm?
According to one data, blood pressure is below 100/60 mm Hg. Art. In men and 95/60 mm Hg. Art. among women; Other - pressure below 100/60 mm.rt.st. people under 25 years old, and below 105/65 mm.rt.st. - older than 30 years. Moreover, the hypotension is said both with lowering both indicators ("upper" and "lower" pressure) and one of them.
- High pressure threatens a heart attack or stroke. And what is dangerous low pressure?
It is believed that with an excessive decrease in blood pressure, there is also a risk of developing cardiovascular complications, although research with the necessary level of evidence was not carried out.
With age, hypotension can pass, replaced by arterial hypertension
In most cases, the prognosis is favorable. If there is no complaints related to reduced pressure, and the person is adapted to it, the hypotonic disease of great harm does not cause the body.
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The fear causes the progression of the disease, repeated episodes of fainting (and associated possible falls), the presence of other concomitant pathologies (ischemic heart disease, diabetes, etc.), as well as the elderly age of the patient (the risk of falling, deterioration of the blood supply of the brain).
- At what figures of blood pressure should urgently cause a doctor? Where is the limit of the lowest norm?
Here everything is individually. Those. Pressure, low for one, can be normal for another (especially if we are talking about hypotonic disease). Therefore, it is quite difficult to voice the limit of the lowest norm.
However, if the patient has symptoms testifying to the development of a threatening condition (pain in the heart or in the chest, shortness of breath, arrhythmous pulse, vomiting, convulsions, disturbance), this is a reason for challenging ambulances with possible hospitalization.
- What is the person under reduced pressure? What symptoms is hypotension?
The most frequent manifestations of hypotension are general weakness, fast fatigue, headaches, a tendency to dizziness, pre-trimming states. There may also be irritability, deterioration of performance (which, with essential hypotension, is often celebrated in the morning). Bad transportation of transport, stuffiness, heat, movement on the escalator, staying at the height. Nausea, violation of thermoregulation ("zlyatness"), sweating, fluctuations in blood pressure - with reduced to elevated). Difficulties with the assimilation of information, sleep disorders, noise in the head.
Can be reported on meteo-dependence, etc.
Read the material on the topic: What is meteo-dependence: diagnosis or fiction?
Symptoms of hypotension are more commonly found in young women of thin body. Often they have an anxiety reduced "background" of mood.
When collecting anamnesis, hereditary gulling can be detected, i.e. Weighing or available cases of low pressure in the family.
- What leads to the development of hypotension? What reasons is this state develop?
Mechanisms for the development of essential hypotension were not fully studied. There are assumptions that it is based on a violation of the so-called neuro-humoral regulation of blood circulation. Often, hereditary burdensome is traced, usually on the female line.
The reasons for secondary hypotension are quite a lot. She can meet at:
- some endocrine pathologies (reduced function of the thyroid gland - hypothyroidism, adrenal cortex - illness of Addison, autonomous diabetic neuropathy, weakening the function of the front lobe of the pituitary gland);
- diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart rate violations; mitral valve prolapse; pericardius; heart defects; heart failure; ischemic heart disease);
Read the material on the topic: Ischemic heart disease: diagnosis and treatment
- infections and intoxication;
- shock of various nature;
- neurological pathologies (brain injury and its consequences; brain neoplasms; Siringomyelia, etc.);
- long bedding;
- lack of fluid;
- allergic reactions;
- reception of various medicines (psychotropic - antidepressants, anti-leaving drugs, for the treatment of insomnia; antiarrhythmic; antihypertensive - reduction of increased blood pressure; diuretic; for the treatment of ischemia; anesthetics).
- Hypotension can go to hypertension? Under what conditions can it happen?
Yes. With age, hypotension can pass, replaced by arterial hypertension. Usually, the pressure is not increased too much, however, nonetheless, poorly tolerated. Moreover, it is possible even when the digits of pressure are still put in the norm (for example, the upper 130-135 mm.rt.) And even formally cannot be formulated as a hypertensive disease.
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However, in the "past" hypotonik, they can already cause manifestations of classical arterial hypertension: the feeling of "pulsation" in the head, dizziness, redness of the face, nausea, rapid heartbeat. And this condition may require appropriate treatment (of course, with a very thorough individual selection of drugs and dosages).
- What diagnosis is necessary to pass the hypotonik in order to reveal the cause of low pressure?
When diagnosing arterial hypotension, a general blood test is performed, urine, some biochemical indicators (including glucose), blood electrolytes, cortisol, thyroid hormones are carried out, heart and thyroid hormones are carried out, ECG, daily monitoring of blood pressure.
Read the material on the topic: Ultrasound of the heart: when you assign and what will show?
Other ultrasound, as well as radiological studies, fibrogastroduodenoscopy - according to indications.
- It is known that doctors recommend leading the hypertensive diary. Do you need to lead the same diary of hypotonikists?
Yes, it is advisable.
- The hypotension is treated with medication?
Yes, such treatment exists, but there are not many drugs. Some of them well shown themselves with orthostatic hypotension, essential hypotension with "even", monotonous flow.
In practice, they are used relatively rarely and very neat.
- What folk methods can help hypotonik lift pressure? Does the hypotension help coffee, ginseng or eleuterococcus?
There are a number of studies showing a moderate positive effect on tea hypotonies, coffee, as well as medicines containing caffeine.
More than our articles in the official group of the company In contact with
Ginseng or Eleutherococcus to some extent will also be effective, but until the end, their influence is not studied - the evidence base for them, as well as on the drugs mentioned above, is also not.
- Anatina Anatolyevna, what rules and recommendations need to adhere to hypotonik in order to improve the quality of his life and not feel broken and tired?
It is necessary to try to detect factors causing pressure reduction, and try to avoid / eliminate them. Among them are a sharp rise (in order to prevent pressure for this reason, it is necessary to first sit down, lean, then raise the housing and head, and get up); long stay in a vertical position; finding in stuffed facilities, high air temperature; Physical work, especially in heat, as well as the associated liquid loss associated with this (therefore, it is necessary to control the loss of fluid).
It is necessary to relax enough, sleep, observe the mode of labor.
Diet (or, rather, the principles of nutrition) in hypotension lies in frequent nutrition in small portions, restricting hot food and beverages; Food rich in easily driving carbohydrates. It is possible to increase the consumption of salt and liquid (up to 2-2.5 liters of liquid, 8-10 g of salt per day).
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People with hypotension should be eliminated by alcoholic beverages. To carefully control the reception of any drugs, be sure to warn the doctor about the tendency to reduced pressure.
To seek and treat pathologies in which hypotension is secondary, i.e. It is one of the manifestations of the main disease.
There is a special gymnastics aimed at training a vascular tone. Its principle lies in the fact that a person in a horizontal position is transferred for a short time to vertical. Pressure at this time decreases. Such cycles are repeated, and the vessels are gradually "getting used to" the pressure at the proper level, which is especially important when a tendency to faint. To engage in such gymnastics should only be controlled by a qualified specialist.
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Kalinina Anatina Anatolyevna
In 2007 she graduated from the Voronezh State Medical Academy. Burdenko.
From 2007 to 2008, an interlineature on therapy was held, in 2010 - professional retraining in the specialty "General medical practice (family medicine)", and in 2017 - in the specialty "Cardiology".
Since 2015, he has been occupied by the doctor's doctor in the "Clinic Expert Voronezh". Leads reception at: ul. Pushkinskaya, d. 11.
Hello, dear readers. When it comes to pressure, as the physiological parameter of the state of the human body, then practically no questions arise, about what it is precisely. Everyone knows what is meant blood pressure. It is known that normally, in an adult, it is 110-130 at 70-85 millimeters of a mercury column (systolic and diastolic, respectively). The top (systolic) value is the pressure in the arteries at the moment when the heart is compressed, pushing the blood under pressure. The lower (diastolic) is the blood pressure indicator in the arteries at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle. When the topics of blood pressure is affected, it sometimes has to hear such words as "hypotension", "hypotension" or simply - "reduced pressure".
All this is the names of the same state, with one amendment: reduced pressure can be one-time phenomenon, while hypotension is already a disease (systematic drop in blood pressure below normal).
This is unpleasant, and in many cases - even dangerous, the state that often requires intervention, especially when the pressure is reduced during pregnancy, in order to adjust it and bring pressure indicators to physiologically normal, or as close as possible to that. So, today we are talking on the topic: reduced pressure, what to do.
What pressure is considered normal for the body
In general, blood pressure in vessels is one of the most important physiological parameters of the human body, on which physical well-being depends, and psychological equilibrium, and on the basis of them - workability, the opportunity to relax fully and so on.
In many sources, it can be found that it is normal blood pressure in which its indicators are constituted 120 on 80. millimeters mercury column.
However, for different ages and floors, these indicators can retire.
So, if you take an average, then for an adult, the minimum permissible indicators are 110 at 70. , and most allowed - 140 90. .
If they are higher, it already makes sense to talk about the initial stage of hypertension, and if below - about hypotension.
Now it becomes clear why it is so important to maintain the pressure in order. Moreover, with a strong deviation of its indicators from the norm, it is possible to deteriorate wellness, up to the fainting states and the inability to lead an active lifestyle.
And although traditionally, and quite deserved, it is believed that increased pressure is much more potentially dangerous to health and even for life, reduced pressure should not be neglected, because hypotension has a tendency to progress and acquire sustainable forms.
It is very important to know what signs of pressure disorders exist, in order to take appropriate measures.
Do not forget about the causes of the development of the hypotension, because such information will make it possible to make maximum efforts for proper preventive measures.
Low pressure - the main reasons and signs
Our bodies are formed from tissues, and tissue, in turn, from cells. All are on the continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients.
Most of them comes with blood, which moves along the blood vessels under the influence of blood pressure.
In many ways, based on the laws of physics, pressure indicators depend on the width of the vessels, according to which blood moves. What they already, the pressure above, and, accordingly, the opposite.
And the tone of blood vessels, from the lumen of which, as already noted, the pressure depends, is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
Hence the first and, according to the assurances of the physicians themselves, the main cause of hypotension: failures in the work of the vegetative nervous system, in other words - vegetative-vascular dystonia.
The concept, frankly, quite and very blurred, abstract. This is not a specific definition of one way or another, but a whole complex of possible causes.
Therefore, let's go further and see what else, except for the VDC (vegetual-vascular dystonia), can adversely affect blood pressure, reducing its indicators below the norm.
Causes of pressure reduction:
✔ Psycho-emotional reasons , among other things, chronic stressful situations. After they, most often, they protrude with hypertension provocateurs, sometimes can give an imperious effect, causing a decrease in blood pressure.
✔ Genetic predisposition In which the child is transmitted to the tendency of a pronounced pressure from parents or from more distant relatives.
✔ Lack of body weight. This is one of the main factors that can be the celestial development of hypotension. It enhances its influence in high people.
✔ Long mental overstrain. On this factor, special attention should be paid to the parents of schoolchildren and students!
✔ Lifeline That is very typical for very very larger people who lead him, starting with the school desk, and continuing the desktop bench, and then - at their workplace.
✔ Cardiology Problems : Violations in the work of the Cardiovascular system of the human body.
✔ Violations in metabolism processes which often provoke problems with internal organs, in particular - liver, intestines and others.
Failures in hormonal background. Often can be caused by problems in the functioning of the endocrine system.
✔ Influence of negative external factors : Accommodation and work in environmentally friendly areas and regions.
✔ unsatisfactory working conditions Especially - work with increased humidity of high temperatures of surrounding atmospheric air.
✔ Problems with the respiratory system and with adrenal glands, as well as by certain internal bodies. They can be observed both in combination and waste.
✔ Harmful habits. Many cause a bewilderment that tobacocuriating alcohol solums, along with other, no less detrofitations, are capable of provoking pressure reduction.
Indeed, in the overwhelming majority of cases, under their influence increases. But, the opposite happens.
✔ Eranny food , diet, poor on vitamins and minerals, so necessary for the body's full-fledged work, as well as some other, less relevant and common, reasons.
Systematic and, very often, irrational, physical exertion of the unimportants. Yes, oddly enough, among them there are many hypotonists.
The decrease in blood pressure is a peculiar protective reaction that the body contraders the constant threat of traumatization of the vessels due to excessively increased indicators.
As for signs or symptoms. They are difficult not to notice, although, sometimes hypotoniki note that they feel 100% fully, in the physical plan, and no discomfort does not feel at all. Therefore, about signs of reduced pressure, after all, you should talk.
The main features include the following:
General physical weakness, sharp drop in performance
Many note the presence of the state of breakdown, lethargy and so on. Measurements of special devices that indicate that pressure is reduced, this is, of course, one of the most important signs directly indicating possible hypotension and, at a time, a one-time flow reduction.
They can manifest absolutely differently: godes, pulsating, sharp sudden and so on. Their localization, in the overwhelming majority, is the occipital part of the head.
Safety of suffocation
The lack of oxygen is particularly pronounced in closed rooms, with large clusters of people.
At the same time, it can manifest itself even in the absence of physical exertion and emotional stress in principle.
Feeling of nausea and even vomiting
It is one of the very frequent symptoms of hypotension, which it is accompanied.
They can be observed both in the lying position and in a vertical position. However, in the latter case - especially often.
Hypotoniki is, as a rule, people with a phlegmatic or melancholic warehouse of character. However, such a broken or indifferent mood, when aggravating the ailment, can sharply replace pronounced aggression, or simply splash emotional, physical activity.
Increased sensitivity to temperature drops
Surrounding atmospheric air. At the same time, limbs of hypotoniki, especially when the exacerbation of pathological conditions is cold.
Detergence of health
Physical and emotional well-being during climatic cataclysms and magnetic storms.
Damage in the eyes and faint
Very often, it is observed with a sharp change of the position of the body of the patient in space, for example: from the position of sitting - in the standing position, and so on.
Concentration of attention, absentia. As a result - and the fall of the patient's working capacity.
Despite the fact that hypotension by many specialists, including both doctors, is not recognized as a separate disease, we tend to believe that it is still a parable, while there is very serious and potentially dangerous.
And it, like any other alert, should be treated. This is quite successful, you can do at home. And let's start familiarizing with this information, perhaps with effective advice.
Low pressure - 10 tips on what to do at home
The first thing to be remembered by potential, or "acting", hypotonized: when the state deteriorates, it is not necessary to overpower yourself and work, exhausting organismophysically and emotionally.
It will only aggravate the situation, and the next time hypotension can manifest itself with a new force. Do what will be pleasant for you.
1 Physical exertion during this period are not prohibited, but strong - not exactly recommended.
2 Drink enough liquid. At least 2-2.5 liters per day. And this is not counting liquid food, tea, coffee, and so on. Only in the presence of the required volume of fluid in the body, its optimal water-salt balance is possible - the key to normal pressure.
3 By the way, in the hypotension of coffee and tea (impossible) - not prohibited.
4Fully tint, get pleasant emotions and be sure to get enough sleep, throwing at least 8-8.5 hours to this process (sleep).
5Natural black chocolate, with reduced arterial pressure, is able to work wonders. It effectively tones the blood vessels, from which its indicators are largely dependent.
6Easy charging in the morning, therapeutic massage, visiting the pool - all this is the effective measures for the treatment and prevention of hypotension.
7If you have low pressure, do not neglect, in the absence of contraindications, using a contrasting shower or, at least, contrasting lanes for legs.
8Power must be frequent, fractional and regular. Not more than 4 hours must be between the meals of the hypotonik during the exacerbation of the state.
9Avoid harsh lifts from bed when before that you were in the lying position, or from the chair - from the situation sitting.
ten Get out for unhurried walks on fresh air. But, if you feel yourself, it will be better if the accompanying will go with you.
With the strengths of dizziness and nausea, do not go for a walk, to the relative normalization of the state.
Use royal milk. This natural miraculous product has unique properties that allow, among other things, to normalize blood pressure: both excessively elevated and reduced.
If reduced lower pressure what to do
With severe states provoked by hypotension, it is necessary, without inflatable, seeking specialized professional medical care.
This decision may not only save you from suffering, but also, in some cases, save lives.
At lower insufficient pressure, the contrasting shower of orvannochki for legs, use of such products, like beans, nuts in assortment, meat, potato dishes, bitter black natural chocolate, full sleep and adequate physical exertion.
Also, do not forget about the absence of stress, comfortable working and recreation conditions.
Top pressure lowered what to do - how to help yourself
Often, this situation may indicate that there are problems with a source or cardiovascular system.
Therefore, if the upper pressure is often reduced, it is recommended to consult a physician or cardiologist.
As a temporary action, it is possible to use the use of not very strong black tea, it is best - with cow's milk.
And also - the use of general recommendations that have been presented for you above.
Reduced pressure - what to do at home, if a headache
One of the most common symptoms of reduced pressure is the headache. At the same time, medication drugs, in most cases, are quite effective.
What can be used (in the absence of contraindications, familiarize yourself with the instructions: Gurtron, Ecic, Ranartarine, heptomyl, symptol and others.
Before use of drugs or folk remedies, be sure to consult a doctor.
From folk remedies - St. John's wort
One tablespoon of the Hypericum on one glass of steep boiling water. Pour grass and insist 55 minutes. Strain. Take daily on a quarter glass in front of the meal. Course: before the normalization of the state, not more than 8 days.
Recipe with lemon from headache
The crushed lemon (about half of a small fetus) must be pouring a glass of shopping or home (not weaker than 40 degrees) vodka, insisting in glass dishes 15 days. Drink 22 drops three times a day before meals. Course: until the status normalization, but not more than 10 days.
Recipe with ginseng
Take ginseng root dry. Grind it, take one and a half teaspoons and pour shopping or home (not weaker than 40 degrees) vodka, 500 milliliters.
Insist about two weeks. Take on a hungry stomach, on a tea spoon, for one week. Next - another week 2 teaspoons. Course: until the pressure is normalized, but no longer 15 days.
Tea or coffee
As already noted, these drinks are capable of increasing indicator pressure. However, abuse them with quantity or fortress.
1-2 cups of coffee with milk, or black, green tea per day - will not harm, but will be allowed to partially normalize the patient's condition.
Products: Brief list
Recommended for inclusion in the diet, for hypotonics, such products and dishes from them:
Nuts (fresh and dried) in assortment
Meat of different varieties
Bitter Black Natural Chocolate
But there is a basic list of productive products, you can include them in a daily diet.
Prevention measures so that the situations are not repeated
They are to prevent the development of hypotension or its exacerbation.
From the Soviets that can be given if you have a decrease or increases pressure, buy yourself tonerite. So you will always know the pressure indicators.
Prevention is a complete elimination of provoking factors, that is, the reasons for the development of hypotension.
All of them were already told above in this article. Exclude them, and this is an incentive preventive blow to hypotension.
Reduced pressure during pregnancy - what to do in this case
Pregnancy is the normal physiological condition of the body. It is known to all.
Within the permissible, the pressure reduction during this period is also considered.
But, the means of combating hypotension during pregnancy differ. So, to the effects of caffery-containing drinks, especially coffee, resort although it is not recommended, but if the pressure is reduced not often, then a completely acceptable agent of a cup of coffee and a piece of black chocolate.
the doctor's consultation
Optimal regime of the day
frequent outdoor walks
Moderate physical exertion, among which - and aquaerobics
When pregnancy, at home you can brew yourself coffee or eat a sandwich with salty fish or salt cheese, if it is a single situation, with repeated situations, you should immediately consult a doctor.