Encyclopedia of Judaism online on Tolłot.Ru

Holiday Hanuki [↑]

This eight-day holiday begins twenty-fifth sour. In the evening - on the eve of the first day of Hanukkah - the Hanukkah lamp begins to light and light it every evening for eight days.

What is Hanukkah? [↑]

Hanukkah candlestick - "Hanukiya" - I light on one candle every day.

Our mentors were taught: "The 25th Ohoche is the beginning of eight days of Hanukkah. These days do not mourn dead and will not stand.

When the Greeks captured the temple, they desecrated all the oil for the lamp. After the victory of Hashmonaev, they were looking for oil and found only one jug, sealed by the print of the high priest. It was only one day in it, but a miracle happened, and it was eight days. The next year, the Day of Thanksgiving and the glorification of Sun-Vyshnya was installed these days. " ( Sabbath 21)

"At the time of the second temple, the Greek kings issued the villain decrees prohibiting the faith of Israel, did not allow to study Torah and execute the commandments. They robbed the Jews and pursued them, broke into the temple and desecrated his purity. They brutally oppressed Israel until Sun-Vyshnya saved him from persecution. Then the Hashmona, the family of high priests intensified, and saved Israel from enemies and set the king of the priests. After that, for two hundred years, Israel became independent - right up to the death of the second temple.

When Israel won and destroyed his enemies, was the twenty-fifth day of Kislev. Entered the temple found only one pitcher of pure oil for the lamp, which could only be enough for one day. But it burned in the temple lamps eight days, until a new pure oil was cooked. " ( Rambam, "Hanukkai laws" , 3)

On Hanukkah, it is customary to fry traditional donuts - Sugganiet

According to Rambams and other commentators, the wise men of that generation decided to make these eight days (starting twenty-fifth oxygen) days of joy and glorifying Sun-Vyshnyh and decided to light the lamps at the entrance to the house every evening to openly indicate a miracle. This holiday was called "Hanukkah" - during the day when the Jewish people finally sighed freely.

The very name of the holiday contains a hint of it. The fact is that the word "Hanukka" can be read as Hanukkah , Hebrew - "rested twenty fifth".

Days of Hanukkah - the days of glorification and thanksgiving. In order to glorify these days of Sun-Vyshnyh, in the morning prayer Shaharit. In Hanukkah read Gallel - Specially selected Psalms of David - entirely, do not miss passages that pass in Rosh Kohlsh, in the seventh day of Pescha and in semicondress days (hol-MoDe) Pescha.

As a sign of our gratitude for the wonderful salvation, sent to us in the time of Chashmonaev, we include in all prayers and some blessings a special Hanukal excerpt: "For miracles ... Matyaga-high-priests perfect ..."

Hanukkah lamps [↑]

For the execution of the commandment, the Hanukkah is sufficient every day to light at least one candle. Candle can be paraffin, but to light the candle with olive oil is preferable - in memory of the temple menor

If possible, it is possible to fill the Hanukkah lamps with purified olive oil and use the wick twisted from cotton fibers, because in this case the lamp gives a clear, clean light and reminds of lamps that stood in the temple, in which olive oil also burned. But any other oil and wick, if their flame is burning smoothly and does not give a soot. You can light up and wax, rigorous or paraffin candles.

The lamp must be beautiful and well-stuck, preferably metallic or glass. In the clay lamp you can light the fire only once, for it immediately becomes unattractive and is not suitable for the execution of the commandment of the next day.

The remains of the wick and oil used to ignite the Hanukkah lamp can be used again.

The same applies to paraffin and wax candles - all suitable items can be used every day.

How they are lit. [↑]

On the first festive evening, one lamp is lit, in the second - two and so on, so that eight lamps light up in the eighth evening.

Every next day, Hanukkah add a candle from the right end of Hanuki, and light up - on the contrary - from the left candle to the right

Take the "Hanuki" - a Hanukkah candlestick with eight lamps - and light the extreme right lamp on the first day.

On the second day, one lamp on the left is added to it and begin to light up from it (that is, they light up from left to right), and so every day - add on the lamp on the left and begin to light the lights from it, that is, from left to right.

This order is set to remind that each new lamp is precious than the previous one, for it reminds of a miracle that becomes more explicitly significant every day. Therefore, the first lamp always flashes; Ignition them from left to right - part of the general rule established for all Mitzvot. To which it can relate: to move from left to right.

Luminaires should be located on the same line and have the same height. There should be a sufficient distance between the lamps so that each of them burns separately, the flames are not merged and the heat of one candle did not pay the other.

In the first evening, Hanukkah before lighting the lamps, three blessings utter:

"You are blessed, Mr. Bl. Our king of the Universe, consecrated by our commandments and who had commanded to light the Hanukkah lamp At this time [year] "and" blessed you, Mr. Gl. Our king of the Universe, who gave us to live, to restore and reach this time. "

After that, the lamps ignite.

The third blessing - "I gave us to live ..." - they pronounce only when the lamps are lit for the first time during the holiday - either on the first day of it, or in the second, third, etc., if anything prevented to light them before - and No longer repeat.

In addition to the Hanukkah lights, it is customary to light another, an extra lamp - Shamash ("Service").

Shamash It is used for lighting, other lights can be lit from it, while the Hanukkah lamps cannot be used for any other purpose, except for the commandment of the commandment. Therefore, the Hanukkah lamps are usually lit Shamash And leave Shamash Nearby on the same candlestick. However, it cannot be placed in one row with Hanucal lamps, for it should be noticeable that it is not one of them.

It is also necessary that the room is quite illuminated and without caustic lamps and Shamash .

It is not customary to light up from each other even the Hanukkah lamps located on one "Hanuki".

During the ignition of the lamps, all households must be met together, for the commandment requires just publicity, the glorification of the miracle.

After the ignition of the first lamp, they utter or sing words "Aerot Alal" ("These lamps"), as well as festive songs.

Where they burn Hanukiya [↑]

The wise men decided that the lamps should be lit in the main, nearest to Rshut Garabim ("Public territory") entrance to the house, on the left side of the door, opposite Mesuz . Luminaires should not be at an altitude of less than three palms (about 24 cm) and greater ten palms (about 80 cm) from the ground. However, if the lamps are installed at a height of 10 to 20 palms, the commandment is still considered to be made.

All these rules are installed for better glorification of the miracle, for in this place and at this height, the lamps are most noticeable.

Nowadays, many put lamps on windowsill windows overlooking the street.

Lamps should not be put on the table inside the apartment, since in this case the universal, public "announcement" of the miracle occurs.

The one who lives in a high house and its window goes outside at an altitude of more than twenty elbows (that is, about ten meters), the lamps on the windowsill should not be lit. In this case, it is preferable to light them in that entrance to the apartment, which most incoming, on the left side of the door.

When the Hanukkah candles light [↑]

There are two most common customs:

1. Healing the Hanukkah lamps with sunset (according to the opinion of Vilen Gahan Rabi Eliau). So come in many Lithuanian communities (some are waiting for several minutes after sunset).

2. To light up with the yield of stars, so come in many Khasid and Sephard communities. As a rule, after the appearance of stars, the evening prayer is pronounced Maariv And immediately after that they light the Hanukkah lights.

Everyone must come in accordance with the custom, adopted in the community.

If this time was for some reason missed, the Hanukkah candles can be lit throughout the night, while family members do not sleep.

He who could not be lit lamps while his family walked, lights them when they sleep, but without blessing. The one who did not have to light them before dawn should no longer be lit on this day.

In half an hour before the spark plug, you cannot eat and drink intoxicating drinks, and after the appearance of the first stars when the candles can already be lit, or, according to the Vilen Gaon, after sunset, it is forbidden to even teach the Tora until the commandment is fulfilled.

Luminaires must burn at least half an hour after the output of the stars. Therefore, it is necessary to fix them in advance by the corresponding amount of oil. Those who light lamps earlier, immediately after sunset, must take care so that they burn at least fifty minutes, that is, after the appearance of the stars there were enough oil for burning at least half an hour.

If the oils were not enough for half an hour, it does not follow it, for the commandment will still not be considered performed. You need to repay all the lamps, fill them and light up.

If oils are poured in plenty, after half an hour, the lamps can be paid off to keep the Out of Outflow or use them for other needs. All this is only if it was planned to do in advance. But if from the very beginning it was not due to the possibility of its use for other purposes, the residue of oil and wick (not used when Ignoring the lamp on the last day of the holiday) can only be burned by arranging bonfire from them.

All the time, while the Hanook lamp is lit, even if the required half an hour has already passed, it cannot be used for lighting and transfer from place to place. First you need to pay off the fire, and then light it again, already for everyday needs.

On the eve of the Sabbath, theanukali lamps first ignite, and then Saturday. This is going long before the sunset, so it is necessary to pour more oil to the lamps so that after the appearance of the stars they burned at least half an hour.

At the end of the Saturday, they first commit Gavdal Over wine, and only then ignite the Hanukkah lights. However, there is also the opposite custom, and everyone must follow the one who is adopted in the community. Sefard Jews accepted in the synagogue to light the Hanukkah lights to Gavdala and at home - on the contrary.

Who is ignites Hanukkah candles [↑]

All - both men and women are obliged to fulfill this commandment. Even a child over nine years old is obliged to light the Hanukkah lamps, if someone from family members did not do it for him.

The son living in his father's house is obliged to light a separate lamp, if he has its own room or angle in the house. If not, the lamps are lit for his father. Sefard Jews adopted that the Hanukkah lamps for all households ignites the head of the family.

The guest must also light the lamps, if a special room or angle is reserved in the house. If not, then it must make at least symbolic participation in the costs associated with the ignition of the lamps, and then the commandment may perform the owner of the house.

In the synagogue, the Hanukkah lamps blesses and light between prayers Minh и Maariv . The one who blessed and lit lamps in the synagogue, at home does it again.

In general, it is necessary to light the lamps everywhere where people are constantly going - for the sake of a public certificate of a miracle.

In the synagogue, the Hanukkah lamps ignite the building from the southern wall.

In the house where the Hanucal lamps light a few people, you need to put candlesticks at such a distance from each other, so that it is clearly visible how many lights he lit each.

"The commandment of Hanukkah in the highest, special degree of all-wagged. A person must fulfill her with all thoroughness, telling about the miracle and multiplying the praise of the sun, who made it for us. Even the one who feeds by the alignment, let him ask for alms or sell his clothes, buy oil to be mined in this way and lights the lamp.

The one to whom on the eve of Saturday is a choice - to buy oils for khanukkah lamps or wine for Saturday Kidusha , should prefer the commandment of Hanukkah and buy oil, even if in that case he will not have wine for Kidusha .

Since both of these commandments are established by Jewish wise men, the one that contains the memory of the miracle should be preferred. " ( Rambam )

Laws Hanukkah [↑]

All eight days of Hanukkah in the morning prayer turns on full Gallel , and a special Hanukal fragment "for miracles ..." is included in all prayers and some blessings (including in the blessing after the meal - Birkat Amazon ).

In the synagogues section of the Torah "Chiefs of Knee" ( Bamidbar, 7. ), telling about the victims who were brought in the temple when updating the altar. Every day they read about the victims brought by the head of one of the knees, and in the eighth day they read about the sacrifices of the head of the eighth and all the remaining knees. Then they read "this - [Gifts] in honor of the renewal of the altar ..." and end the reading of the Torah first part of the section "When you'll light the lamps" - before the words "he did a lamp."

The one who mistaken missed the words "for miracles ..." in the prayer "eighteen blessings" and remembered this before the name did the name of the Sun-Vyshnya at the end of the blessing "Thank you ...", returns back and says an excerpt "for miracles ..." if He remembered this later, then he finishes a prayer without this fragment.

If Rosh Hadeshe Tvet fell on Saturday, then in Birkat Hamazon Three additional fragments are read: "For miracles" - in honor of Hanukkah, "Yes, it will be ..." - in honor of Saturday and "May will rise and come ..." - in honor of Rosh Hood. This is the longest blessing after the meal of the year! In this case, three Scrutters of the Torah are submitted in the synagogue. For one of them, six people read the weekly chapter of the Torah, on another seventh person reads an excerpt dedicated to the victims of the Newlysy, and in the third he read about sacrifices of the head of the knees - in honor of Hanukkah.

All eight days Hanukkah do not mourn the dead and will not stand, but you can make any job. However, if the Jewish sage died - it is mourned in Hanukkah.

Magaril I wrote: "The tradition of conveyed to us, that one should not work at a time when the Hanukkah lamps are burning, that is, at a time when the commandment is fulfilled." The hint of this is contained in the Word of Hanukkah - "Hanukkah" ("Revenge on the 25th [sour]").

There is a custom prohibiting women to work while the Hanukkah lamps are burning, and it should not be retreated. In some Sefhar communities, women do not work either all eight days of the holiday, or in the first and last day.

Women perform a custom to refrain in Hanukkah from work more strictly than men, because the military victory over the Greeks the Jewish people were, as Talmud says, to a large extent, a woman is obliged to be - yogitnan, the daughter of the High Priest Johnana. This custom is a recognition of the merit of Jewish women of all generations.

On the days of Hanukkah, it is customary to eat dishes, seasoned with oil or roasted on it, in memory of a jug with olive oil, thanks to which a miracle was performed.

Customs Hanuki [↑]

Although it is not necessary to arrange a festive meal in Hanukka, most of the Jews still try to sit at the table in the festive atmosphere, talk about Torah and talk about the wonders of Hanukkah.

In the Sephardic communities, Jerusalem is arranged on the days of Hanukkah crowded feast, one of whose tasks is to mention people who have arisen among themselves.

In Hanukka, pay special attention to the teaching of children Torah. In many communities, various events are arranged, whose task is to awaken in the children to the deep study of the Torah. There is a custom to distribute to children during these events "Hanukkah money" in order to attract their attention and interest.

In the diaspora, many rabbis left their cities in the days of Hanukkah and went to the villages and the town where Jews lived to teach them to Torah. Thus, the Jews who lived in distant villages could at least once every year to meet with the outstanding connoisseurs of the Torah and learn from them.

Children in the days of Hanukkah play in Svivon - four-metered top, on the edges of which Jewish letters are inscribed NUN, GIMEL, GI и Pee. (in the diaspora - tire ). This is the first letters of the phrase words "the great miracle happened here (in the diaspora - there, in Eretz Israel)." Game B. Svivon It was invented in order for even the smallest children to think about the miracle of Hanukkah.

Chief custom Hanuki - Hinuh Education - (a word on Hebrew's word on Hebrew with the word "Hanukka") is the upbringing of both children and the whole people. His task is to ensure that the Jews do not forget about the grace rendered to them to Sun-Vyshny, glorified him and performed his commandments.

Day update [↑]

Day Twenty-fifth sour, when an update (cleansing and sanctification) of the altar occurred during the time of Hashmonaev, was allocated for this purpose since the Torah's time. About this day spoke later to the prophet Haggai. The meaning of his prediction became fully understood only during the time of Khashmonaev.

This is what our wise men say about it.

Rabbi Khanina said: "Production work Mishka (Tabe Testament) in the desert were completed on the 25th. However, he was kept in a disassembled form until the 1st Nisana, when, on the orders of Sun-Vyshnyh, Moshe collected it. "

"Moshe had to wait so much time because Sun-Vyshny wanted to postpone consecration Mishka To the joyful month of Nisan. Since, therefore, the month of Kislev lost this high honor, Sun-Vyshnyh decided to refund his lost. It happened in Hanukkah, when Hashmona was updated the altar in the second temple. " ( Yulkut, 184. )

Later, when the first exiles returned from Babylon and began to build a second temple, the foundation of the new building was completed on the 24th. The 25th Academy of Sciences Jews celebrated this event. However, the Prophet Haggai wrote: "Pay your hearts from this day and further, from the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month, from the day when the Mr. Church was founded, please contact your hearts." ( Haggai, 2. )

In these words, hidden hint. "Pull your hearts from this day further" meant - do not celebrate it, celebrate the next day behind him, the 25th sour, when his term comes. This also testifies to the fact that Hematria the words "your hearts" are equal to the ninety-four and coincides with Hematia The words "Hanukkah".

R. Eliaua Ki-Tov, "The Book of Our Heritage"

This is a very ancient and important tradition for the Jews. The holiday is not tied to a specific calendar day, and in 2019 it is celebrated today.

Hanukkah - what is this holiday?

In another way, Hanukka is called the sacred day of candles - as a sign of the miracle of the consecration of the temple after the fierce battle of the army of the Maccava and Antioch armies. This battle has a long history and is rooted in 164 BC.

It is believed that Hanukkah lasts 8 days, and starts from the 25th day of the Jewish month of the oxygen.

The history of this religious holiday has the same religious basis.

Hanukkah - what is this holiday?

It all started in the 4th century BC, when the people of Jews voluntarily moved under the leadership of Alexander Macedonian. And at the same time the warlord everything was fine. After 9 years of reign, the warrior died, and his heirs began to share his place. As a result, the Egyptian family of Ptolemyev, which existed in power for about 100 years, was asked for the throne.

This century was marked by stability. But in 198 BC. The Egyptian dynasty overthrew Seleucida - Greeks of Assyria. And despite the unrest of the Jews, the beginning of the reign of conquerors was good. Taxes reduced, and their blessed culture promised not to touch. The right to "live according to the laws of fathers" was the most important right for Jews. But over time, the Greeks still began to introduce an ellic culture among the Jewish population.

Hanukkah - what is this holiday?

The peak point was the addende on the throne of Antioch Epifan, which introduced the most severe dictatorship in relation to the rejection of the culture of the indigenous population of the Jew. Torah was banned, the temples were robust, Jerusalem was renamed.

In response to the infringement of the faith of Jews, a people's uprising rose, which headed Yehuda from the Maccabyev family. His squad was less than numerous, prepared and armed. Therefore, Yehuda counted the tactics at which they did not have to face the face to face with the whole army of the Greeks - they made small raids on this or that squad of the anti-food army. So, for three years, it was possible to clean the sacred lands of Jerusalem from strangers. It was a victory.

Hanukkah - what is this holiday?

The legend says that when the Jews rose to the mountain in the temple, they found oil for candles there. Its quantities would have enough shining a day. But some miracle fire lasted 8 days. So, there was a newly consecrated temple.

Hanukkah - what is this holiday?

It is by this legend that the Jews light the candles in Hanuki - on one candle every day, and so all 8 days. In children during the celebration of Hanukkah - vacation, they give gifts and give money. Adults also celebrate this great holiday.

Hanukkah is one of the most important Jewish holidays. Every year, the Jewish world celebrates eight days of "updates", which means the name of the holiday. The celebration of Hanukkah is associated with old rites, rituals and beliefs.

In the 25th day of the Oh (approximately December 9-12), the festival begins, which the Jews celebrate in every corner of the world. Hanukkah is not just a celebration, it has a lot of sacred characters. Why is this holiday Jewish people ignites candles? And what other interesting traditions are associated with Hanukkah?

Meaning Hanukkah

Hanukkah is one of the oldest holidays that they have survived and reached our days, not underway special changes. I want to note that the Jewish calendar differs significantly from usual to us, so on December 9-12 - only the conditional date of the beginning of Hanukkah. However, it is the end of the year is key to the holiday. At this time, the days are in short, and the night - darker and longer.

The name of the holiday is a lot of riddles. If we try to translate it literally, we will get the following: "Khanu" - "Achieving Peace" and "Ku" - "Twenty-Five". At first glance, it seems not entirely understandable, but I will try to explain the true meaning of these words.

Fleroova Elena Nikolaevna "Hanukka"
Vaulting of candles - an important ritual of Holiday False Elena Nikolaevna "Hanukka"

As already noted, the celebration of the 25th of the oxygen begins. This is not just a chosen date - it was on this day that the Jews won the Greeks in 164 to our era.

Another version of the origin of the name Hanukkah - from the word "Lahant, which means" cleansing ". Just on this day, the consecration of the Jerusalem Temple was re-committed, the altar of which was defiled. In our time, Hanukkah can be called the triumph of light.

Celebration Hanukkah, 1949
Hanukkah - Holiday of Light in the Jewish Narodpacity Hanukkah, 1949


But when first began to celebrate her? In the distant past, during the reign of Alexander Macedon, when Israel's lands belonged to Syria and Greece, two people tried to find mutual understanding.

The Jews tried to remain law-abiding citizens, and the Greeks condescended to other faith on conquered lands. When Antiochus IV Epiphan comes to power, sharp changes begin for the worse. The new Syrian ruler tried to impose Greek beliefs with the conquered peoples, which caused excitement and rejection.

Ground execution to Jews, Antioch IV banned to confess his own religion. Moreover, the Altar Zeus was installed in the Jerusalem temple, which became a terrible desecration of the sacred place. Of course, such actions of Antioch caused more and more anger of the people.

The result was the uprising in Modya, and in a few years the Jews restored justice. If you consider the overall time of the fight, we will get the same number - twenty-five years. Traditions say that after repeated consecration of the temple, all the relics of idolaters were thrown.

But the Jews faced difficulty. Almost all jugs with butter, which supported fire in the lamp, were desecrated. There was only a very tiny vessel. Oils from him would hardly have enough for a day, but an incredible thing happened - the fire continued to burn all the following days, confirming the accomplishment of a miracle.

Elena Fleroova "Hanukiya"
Elena Fleroova "Hanukka"

Symbols and traditions Hanukkah

The symbol of Hanukkah became Hanukiya, which is how the Jews call the stand for candles. She is identified in this holiday with the resistance of the spirit, determination and victory of light and good. In antiquity, Hanuki was taken to hang near the entrance door to the left.

Later, when the stone houses were replaced by wooden, and people began to fear fires, it was strangess to leave a stand with candles on the windowsill. Today, every Jewish family has Hanukiya, and the products are significantly different in size, form and material from which are made.

Hermann Gold "Hanukka", 2010
Hermann Gold "Hanukka", 2010

On Hanukkah, it is necessary to light the candles, however, this process must be performed in accordance with the ritual system. The first right lamp should be lit. The next day, the candle is lit, which is closest to the burning. Every day is added via the candle, and by the end of the holiday, Hanukiya sparkles with eight fires.

Healing the candles should only head of the family, father or husband. This is considered special art, so the boys learn from early years. Jews believe that with the root of the litigation should be attended by the whole family - this is the blessing.

Boris Dubrov "Holiday Hanukka", 2006
Boris Dubrov "Holiday Hanukkah", 2006

It is possible to burn Hanuki to sunset, however most of the Jews are trying to give the fire with candles when the first stars appear in the sky. I want to note that ritual candles and stand for them cannot be used for domestic needs - Hanukius should be involved only during festive rituals.

Like any other holiday, Hanukka has its beliefs and prohibitions. On this day it is impossible to grieve, mourn the dead - everything should be directed towards light thoughts and joy. You can not stick to Hanukka to the post, however, it's not worth the lush peirs.

In Israel, at the time of days, Hanukkah schoolchildren go on vacation to spend time with families. Women are forbidden to do homemade deals, although today this belief somewhat softened: you can work when festive candles are burning. During Hanukkah, various children's games and fun are welcomed, for which the kids get sweets and fruits.

Irina Litmanovich "Hanukkah. Eighth Day, 2011
Hanukkah Jews even celebrate the streets of Korodovirin Litmanovich "Hanukkah. Eighth Day ", 2011

In our time, Hanukkah became a symbol of Jewish culture, which makes it possible to feel like a member of the holiday even tourists. In Israel, more recently, it is customary to install large Hanuki in the squares and streets, which make it possible to mentally join the holiday even representatives of another faith. Hanukkah is a really kind and bright holiday that gives people joy and the most pleasant impressions.

Hanukkah 2020: When it is celebrated, history and traditions, ritual dishes, gifts to children

Hanukkah - this is holiday of light , noted, according to the Jewish tradition, in winter. The holiday is dedicated to an important event in the Judean history, he has ancient traditions and rituals. Hanukkah loves children, because there are gifts for this holiday for this holiday.

When Hanukkah is celebrated in 2020

According to the Jewish calendar, the first day of Hanukkah falls on the 25th day of the month Kislev, the holiday lasts eight days. In 2020, Hanukkah Celebrated From the evening of Thursday, December 10, until the evening Friday, December 18 .

history of the holiday

Word Hanukkah Translated from Hebrew means "consecration", "cleansing", "update". The events of the holiday fall on the second century BC, at the time of the reign of the representative of the Seleucid dynasty Antioch IV Epiphana . Under it, the trends associated with a gradual departure from religion began to increase in Judea, up to the violation of the fundamental principle of Judaism - the monotheism.

The people did not cross the insults of faith, and the uprising began in the country, which was headed by a representative of the famous Dynasty of Hasmonaev named Mateyha . The rebels who knew the local mountains perfectly, began a partisan war, hiding from government troops in numerous caves. After death, the leadership of the rebels passed to his son Ihude (Juda) Maccave (Maccaway on Hebrew means "hammer").

The climax of the uprising was taken by the army of Judah Maccava in 164 BC Jerusalem Temple Mountain, after which the rebels entered the looted and desecrated temple. To clean the temple, it was necessary to light the ritual seedswie - Menor, using special clean oil for this, to prepare for eight days. In one of the architects of the temple, there was a small pitcher with clean butter, which could only be enough for a day of the burning of Menora. However, Makkavai did not want to pour the moment of reckoning the temple of holiness and litn a Menor, hoping for God's help.

The legend states that the Lord revealed a miracle - Menorah was burning eight days for which they managed to cook and bring pure temple oil. In memory of this miracle and celebrates Hanukkah.

Traditions of the holiday

Hanukkah's motto can be formulated as follows:

"Even the light of one small candle is able to dispersed the larger darkness."

The main tradition of Hanukkah is associated with the ignition of the candles, and this can be done as public as possible. Candles light up daily for all eight days of the holiday, for this use a special candlestick - Hanuki, which is designed for nine candles. The ninth is the biggest - the candle (in Hebrew "Shamash") is a service, all the other candles light up: on the first day - one, on the second day - two and so on.

Big Hanuki pose a synagogue in the courtyards, sometimes even on the streets and squares.

Hanukkah 2020: When it is celebrated, history and traditions, ritual dishes, gifts to children

In general, Hanukkah - a holiday outdoor, earlier in St. Petersburg in the Hanukalous days there were large concerts on the main city sites with the invitation of the best stars, including Joseph Kobzona . In recent years, the day, more precisely, the evening ignition of the first candle in the courtyard of a large choral synagogue was conducted by a fire show. In addition, the Hanukkah Week marked a big concert in the synagogue. Alas, this year because of a pandemic caused by Coronavirus, all public events on Hanukkah will be held online, and the believers will be lit in the home setting.

Ritual dishes on Hanukkah

In memory of a vessel with an oil, from which Menorah was lit in the temple on Hanukkah, there are dishes fried on the oil. First of all, these are donuts with sweet filling (soufganiet), as well as the Eastern European dish Latkes (potato pancakes).

Gifts to children

On Hanukkah, children are accepted to give gifts, including money that is called - Hanukkah money. Custom to give children to Khanukka money, sometimes considerable, especially common among American Jews.

In addition, during traditional children's holidays on Hanukka, games are arranged with a special wolf, who is called Draidl, and in Hebrew - Sevivon. On the edges of the wolf they wrote the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, resembling the Hanucal miracle. Play in the top of the special rules, money or sweetness.

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