Dome • Big Russian Encyclopedia - electronic version
Posted On 23.02.2021
Dome of the Shah Mosque in Isfahan. 1612-66. Architect Abu-L-Cases. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
DOME (Ital. Cupola - dome, arch, from lat. Cupula, decreasing from CUPA - barrel), the spatial carrier structure of the upper (mainly) part of the building or structure, in shape close to the hemisphere or other surfaces of rotation convex the curve around the vertical axis. From the vertical load in K. horizontal efforts (spacers) arise, which are transmitted to the design supporting it or perceived by the lower (reference) ring of K. It is used for overlapping round, elliptic or polygonal in terms of rooms without additional. Intermediate supports.
Dome of St. Petersburg Cathedral in St. Petersburg (inner view). 1818-58. Architect O. R. de Monferran.
K. From stone and burned bricks appeared in antiquity, initially in the form of so-called. False K., in which the horizontal rows of masonry, hanging one over the other, do not transmit the walls of the repalar Mixes , OK. 1350-1250 BC er). I got important to K. in the architecture of ancient Rome with the development of clint arches, arches and especially after the invention of concrete. Overlapping without supporting a large room in the center. Constructions, K. strengthened his role in the architecture. Compositions, gave him a space and celebrations. Majesty, often figuratively expressing the idea of strength and the inviolability of the relig. Representations (Grand Caesonated K. Pantheon in Rome). In the visant. architecture was widely used by K. on Thrompach и sail (appeared in the architecture of the ancient Rome and Iran of the era of Sasanidov), which allowed to erect K. above the room with any configuration of the plan ( Saint Sophia Temple in Constantinople). In the Middle Ages a variety of designs K. in Europe and in the Caucasus were erected by ch. arr. In the temples Cross-domed system [eg, temple JVARI. Near Mtskheta (Georgia), C. St. RipSime in Echmiadzin (Armenia)], and in the feud. States cf. Asia and the Middle East K. were used to overlap centrich. Buildings.
With awareness of the role K. not only in the interior, but in the appearance of the building, the outer outline of K. is changing relative to the internal, and then the outer shells appear above it (differing from the outlines from itself to K.), usually as a curvilinear coating on wood. rafyles (early example - K. St. Mark Cathedral in Venice, 9-11 centuries.). K. with external shells, completing the usual vertical volumes of cult buildings and architects created. or natural environment, gained widespread in Islamic architecture (mosque: Dome of the rock In Jerusalem, Kon. 7th century; Bibi Hanoe in Samarkand, 1399-1405, having an outer and ext. K., et al.) And in Rus. cf.-century. architecture ( Sofia Cathedral in Kiev Sofia Cathedral In Veliky Novgorod, Ser. 11 c.; Temples Vladimir-Suzdal School , 12 - 1st floor. 13 centuries).
In the era of the revival of the interpretation K. as a town-place. Dominants extends to the Zap architecture. Europe - Starting with K. Cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore In Florence (1417-71, Arch F. Bruneland ), where for the first time the double shell K. is bound by stone ribs of rigidity and tree. Rings in a single design, and finishing K. St. Peter Cathedral In Rome (1506-1614, Arch. Michelangelo ). K. often completed cult buildings and in the era Baroque и Classicism 17-18 centuries. With con. 18 V. K. began to be used in secular buildings.
From the 2nd floor. 19th century Instead of brick and stone K., the disadvantages of which are big their own. Weight and time consideration of the construction, K. with Metal methow applied wider. Karcas (for the first time on the project arch. O. R. de Monferran For K. St. Isaac's Cathedral ) and glazing (dome Albert Holla In London), K. from wood and reinforced concrete. In the 20th century With the advent of thin-walled hips, as well as with the development of metal. designs (new dome of the Reichstag building in Berlin, 1994-99, N. Foster ), monolithic and precast reinforced concrete increased dramatically the variety of structures and forms K .: K. ribbed, ribor-ring, with a wavy ext. Surface, as well as "geodesic" R. B. Fuller (diameter up to 150 m), prefab depositated dome P. L. Nervy et al. with gray. 20 V. New types K.: From polymeric materials, with a double inflatable shell (Summer Pavilion, art gallery "Serpentine" in London, 2006, Arch. R. Krax), etc. See also Chapter .
Rubric: Orthodox Temple
Church dome - history, species, symbolism
Find out the most interesting and important about the church dome, reading an article or watching the video at the end of the text.
What is the temple dome?
The dome call the spatial overlap of buildings or premises, in shape close to the hemisphere. In Orthodoxy, the church dome is used as an important architectural and decorative element of temples and chapels.
We are so accustomed to the domes that the temples are no longer thinking without them. Although the main detail of the church is a cross. Church without a dome, but with a cross - all the same Orthodox church, but the temple without a cross is no longer an Orthodox, but the cult facilities related to another denomination.
Features of temple domes
The domes of churches are of symbolic meaning. There are several types of domes characteristic of Orthodox churches.
Church dome in the form of a helmet It is found in the housesongol architecture (until the middle of the XIII century). He resemble the believer that the Orthodox Church is a militant church, its members are constantly fighting with sin. The brightest example of the temple with a helmet dome is the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.
Spherical The dome in the Orthodox tradition is a symbol of eternity. This type of dome design came to us from the Roman Empire. The classic spherical dome is decorated with the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Lord in Belgorod.
Tents - Architectural forms in the form of a multifaceted (most often octic) pyramids serving to complete the architectural structure. They symbolize the image of the Holy Spirit or the image of the Virgin. This type of temple roof appeared in Russian Orthodox architecture in the XVI century. Now it is rarely found rarely due to the complexity of the framework of the frame. The famous example of a tent church is the Ascension Church in Kolomensky.
The main type of domes of Russian Orthodox churches are Dome-bulb. The origin of such domes is still for scientists the subject of disputes. Some researchers believe that such a roof shape was chosen to facilitate the cleaning of snow and ice from it in the winter.
But the same domes are distributed in southern countries - in India, Turkey and in the Middle East. In Russia, the bulbous dome crosses the highest tower of the Cathedral of Vasily blissful.
Other types of temple domes
There are still many types of domes that are not characteristic of Russian Orthodoxy, but are distributed in other countries or confessions. For example, oval The dome, which is one of the characteristic features of the Baroque style architecture. Or dome-umbrella whose storage is divided into segments by ribs that make up the vertical load. Such dome was distributed in Rome and Byzantium.
Also stand out dome saucer Which are not losing popularity to this day. They are used not only in cult facilities, but also in the interior of modern buildings. This is the lowest type of dome, it allows the most large-scale casting roofs.
Symbolic value of domes
What does the number of domes on the church mean
One dome is a symbol of a single God. Single-oiled churches are found in simple and laconic Novgorod architecture (the church of the Savior in Ilyin Street). Churches with two domes are more characteristic of Catholicism and in Orthodoxy are rare. They point into two Natures of Jesus Christ - Divine and Human. Three domes are associated with the Holy Trinity and in Orthodox architecture are much more common (Smolny Cathedral in St. Petersburg).
Temples with five domes are found in Russia everywhere. Five domes personify the Lord surrounded by four evangelists - the Holy Apostles John, Matthew, Mark and Luke. In the number seven in Orthodoxy a lot of values - seven main virtues, seven universal cathedrals, seven seven church sacraments. Sometimes this list includes seven days of the week. The classic example is the cathedral of the Belogorsk Nikolaev monastery under Perm.
The nine temples remind us of nine angelic ranks - angels, archangels, starts, authorities, strength, domination, thrones, cherubs and seraphims ("saved on blood"). Thirteen domes refer us to the picture of the secret evening - Jesus surrounded by the twelve students. A larger number of domes in Orthodoxy is practically not found.
Colors of domes and their meaning
Why are the domes of churches gold? The fact is that the color of the domes of Orthodox churches is also important. Golden color - The most common. Golden dome usually put on the temples in honor of the great holidays - Christmas, Annunciation, Certification (Assumption, Blagoveshchensky and Arkhangelsk Kremlin Cathedrals).
Nowadays, the complex and cost-in-law of applying a leaf gold dome gave way to the method of applying titanium nitride. The modern analog that is much less capricious in leaving and much longer.
Blue dome The stars usually bang over the churches of the Nativity of Christ or above the temples dedicated to the Mother of God. In the first case, the stars on a blue background symbolize the Bethlehem star, which referred to the place of birth of the Savior. In the second - on the cover of the Most Holy Virgin, who is often portrayed in the icons in blue and with the "star" pattern (Trinity-Izmailovsky Cathedral in St. Petersburg).
Silver color At the domes it is quite rare. It symbolizes purity and holiness. Temples with silver domes are almost always consecrated in honor of the Saints (Sofia Cathedral in Novgorod). The black color of the domes is even less common. This color in Orthodoxy is associated with monasses, because of what the black matte dome is decorated in the main monastery temples (the Cathedral of the Don Monastery in Moscow).
Green color In Orthodoxy - the symbol of the Holy Spirit. Therefore, most often the green domes rise above the temples in honor of the Holy Trinity (Temple Complex "Kulich and Easter" in St. Petersburg).
Latest type of domes - Multicolored which meets less frequently. He is known for us in such monumental works of Russian Orthodox architecture as the Cathedral of Vasily Blessed in Moscow and "Savior on Blood" in St. Petersburg. Multicolored domes testify to believers about the indescribable beauty of the kingdom of heaven.